Experiment 81

To determine when baking powder should be added to a batter. I. To determine the factors that affect the texture, tenderness, and flavor of waffles.

Recipe for plain waffles:

Milk

Eggs

Flour

Oil or melted fat

Salt

Baking powder

1 cup 2 l to 1 1/2 cups

2 tablespoons 1/2 teaspoon

0 to 1 1/2 teaspoons

244 grams

96 grams 112 to 168 grams

25 grams

0 to 6 grams

Sift the flour and baking powder together 2 times. Separate the yolk and white of the egg. It will be necessary to beat at least a whole white or yolk; then divide it. Mix the fat, beaten yolk, salt, and milk. Add the flour, stir only until well blended, and count the strokes used for combining. Beat the egg white until stiff and fold into the batter. Count the number of strokes used for folding the white. Use the same kind of baking powder for all the experiments until section C is reached. The amount of ingredients given under each experiment is for the full recipe.

Heat the waffle iron. Test the temperature, if the iron does not have a temperature indicator, by placing a drop of water on the iron. If the drop boils rapidly the iron is hot enough. If the drop boils so vigorously that it vaporizes very rapidly, the iron is too hot. It is better to have the waffle irons of the same make and type for some experiments so that the depth of the batter will be the same for all waffles. Put the baked waffles on cake coolers until comparisons are made. Putting the baked waffles on plates causes the under side to sweat and become soggy. To keep warm place wire cake cooler with waffle in slightly warmed oven.

A. The time of baking waffles.

1. Prepare 3/4 of the recipe. Use 1 1/3 cups of flour (150 grams), and 4 grams, about 1 teaspoon of baking powder. Bake one waffle 3 minutes, one 4 minutes, and one 5 minutes. The time may need to be varied depending on the temperature maintained by the iron. Compare for crispness and tenderness.

B. Proportion of ingredients.

Prepare 1/4 of the recipe. Use time of baking found best under A for a guide. Will the thin batters under 1 and 2 require a longer time than the thick ones? Apply results with popovers and cream puffs.

1. Use 1 cup of flour and omit the baking powder.

2. Repeat 1, but add 4 grams of baking powder.

3. Repeat 1, but increase the flour to 1 1/3 cups (150 grams).

4. Repeat 3, but add 4 grams of baking powder.

5. Repeat 1, but increase the flour to 1 1/2 cups (168 grams), and add 1 teaspoon of baking powder (4 grams).

6. Repeat 5, but increase the baking powder to 6 grams.

7. Repeat 6, but increase the fat to 1/4 cup (50 grams).

8. Repeat 7, but add 2 tablespoons of sugar (25 grams).

9. Repeat 8, but increase the eggs to three.

10. Repeat 9, but increase the flour to 1 3/4 cups and the baking powder to 8 grams.

11. Use the following: milk 1 cup, fat or oil 1/2 cup, sugar 2 tablespoons, eggs 3, flour 2 cups, salt 1 teaspoon, and baking powder 8 grams.

12. Repeat 11, but increase the baking powder to 12 grams.

13. Repeat 12, but increase the sugar to 1/2 cup (100 grams). If brown sugar is used, bake at a little lower temperature than for plain waffles. Determine the time of baking to secure a crisp waffle, suitable for serving as short cake.

14. Repeat 13, but reduce the flour to 1 7/8 cups, add 1/8 cup of cocoa (28 grams), and bake with waffle iron slightly cooler than for plain waffles.

C. Kind and amount of baking powder.

1. Use the proportion of flour found best for a plain waffle under B. Use 4 grams of a tartrate baking powder. Standardize the time of baking the waffles under C.

2. Repeat C1, using a phosphate baking powder.

3. Repeat C1, using sulfate-phosphate powder.

4. Determine the most desirable quantity of each baking powder to use with the proportion of flour preferred.

D. Extent of mixing.

1. Prepare 1/4 the recipe, using the proportion of flour found best under B. Use 60 strokes for combining the flour and liquid. Add the beaten egg white, keeping a record of the number of folds used.

2. Repeat D1, but use 120 strokes for mixing the flour and liquid. Use same number of strokes for folding egg white as used under D1.

E. The method of mixing.

1. Prepare 34 the recipe. Use the method given above. Use the same proportion of flour and baking used for C and D. Use 60 strokes for mixing the flour and liquid. Keep record of number of strokes for folding the egg white. Bake all waffles under E for the same length of time.

2. Repeat E1, using the same number of strokes, but stir the egg white into the batter.

3. Repeat E1, but beat the whole egg until light and foamy. Fold into the batter, using same number of strokes as for the egg white.

4. Repeat E1, but add the fat to the batter just before adding the egg white. The total number of strokes for mixing flour and fat should be 60.

What length of time of baking gives the best waffle? Does crispness depend upon the length of time of baking or proportion of ingredients or both? Which proportion of flour do you prefer for a plain waffle? Which proportions are best for the rich waffle? Is 2 teaspoons of baking powder sufficient for the rich waffles or do they need 3 ? Is there any difference in the waffles made with the various types of baking powders? Should the quantity of baking powder be varied for each type of powder? What is the effect of mixing the batter too long on the texture and tenderness of the waffle? May the length of time of mixing vary with the different proportions of flour? Is the texture, tenderness, or crispness affected by time of adding the fat? The egg white? Which is preferable to use, the whole beaten egg, or the separately beaten white and yolk?

II. To determine the factors that affect the texture, tenderness, and flavor of griddle cakes. Recipe:

Milk

Egg

Fat, melted

Flour

Salt

Baking powder

1 cup

2 tablespoons

1 1/3 to 12/3 cups 1/2 teaspoon About 1 to 2 teaspoons

244 grams

48 grams

25 grams 150 to 186 grams

2 grams 4 to 8 grams

Prepare 1/4 the recipe. Use the baking powder indicated for experiments under A. Test the heat of the griddle by baking 1 tablespoon of the batter. It should be possible to bake the cake without addition of fat to griddle. The amount of ingredients is for the full recipe. Sift flour and baking powder together 2 times. Mix the well-beaten egg, milk, melted fat, and salt. Add flour and stir 50 times with a wooden spoon. Bake the whole amount as one griddle cake.

A. The proportion of baking powder.

1. Use 1 1/3 cups of flour and 4 grams of a tartrate baking powder.

2. Repeat Al, using 6 grams of tartrate powder.

3. Repeat Al, using 8 grams of a tartrate powder.

4. Repeat Al, using a phosphate baking powder.

5. Repeat A2, using a phosphate baking powder.

6. Repeat A3, using a phosphate baking powder.

7. Repeat Al, using sulfate-phosphate (S.-P.) baking powder.

8. Repeat A2, using S.-P. powder.

9. Repeat A3, using S.-P. powder.

B. The amount of mixing.

1. Repeat Al, 2 and 3 (or any third of A), but mix 120 strokes.

C. The proportion of flour.

1. Use 1 1/4 cups of flour and proportion of baking powder found best under A.

2. Repeat C1, using 1 1/3 cups of flour.

3. Repeat C1, using 1 1/2 cups of flour.

D. Substituting sour milk for sweet milk.

Repeat section C but substitute sour milk for the sweet milk and use 1/2 teaspoon soda for 4 grams of the baking powder.

Compare the griddle cakes for texture, tenderness, and lightness. Which proportion of baking powder produces the lightest product? Should the amount of baking powder be varied for the different types of baking powder? Which proportion of flour gives the best griddle cake with sweet milk? With sour milk?

When should baking powder be added to a batter? Compare the amount of baking powder needed for waffles and griddle cakes.

Stiff Batters

Muffins

Experiment 82

To determine the factors which affect the texture of muffins and the amount of mixing required with different types of baking powders. Recipe: