This section is from the book "Experimental Cookery From The Chemical And Physical Standpoint", by Belle Lowe. Also available from Amazon: Experimental cookery.
6. Use 16 grams of baking powder for the full recipe.
b. Repeat section D,a, using a phosphate baking powder.
c. Repeat section D,a, using an S.-P. baking powder.
Which amount of powder produces the best-textured cake with a tartrate, phosphate, and S.-P. baking powder respectively? Do all members of the class agree on which amount is preferable? Might the optimum amount vary with the maker's technic? With other factors? Enumerate. What is the effect on volume, texture, velvetiness, and crumbliness of cake of a small amount of powder? Of the large amounts? Which amounts of baking powder yield cakes that stale rapidly?
E. To determine the effect of varying the temperature of baking and the method of combining ingredients for a plain cake.
Prepare 1/4 or the proportion of recipe desired. Increase the sugar to 1 1/2 cups. Use 225 strokes for combining the flour and milk with the creamed mixture. For 1/4 the recipe, 235 grams of batter should be weighed into the baking pan; for 1/6 use 150 grams. Use the proportion of baking powder found best under D, but use the same kind of powder for all of section E.
1. Conventional method. Cream enough butter, sugar, and eggs for 3 cakes. Add the sugar gradually to the butter, and cream thoroughly. Add the beaten egg and mix until light and fluffy. Divide into 3 equal parts. If using 1/4 the recipe, weigh out 124 grams for each cake unless a smaller amount is necessary to divide the creamed mixture evenly.
1a. To part 1 of the creamed mixture add the flour by method a given under D.
1b. To the second part add the flour by method b under D. 1c. To the third part add the flour by method c under D.
2. Muffin method. Sift the baking powder and the flour together 2 times. Use melted butter. Beat the egg. Combine the liquid ingredients. Add dry ingredients to the liquid ones and mix 225 strokes.
3. Separating the yolk and white of the egg. Prepare 3/4 or proportion of recipe desired. Separate the white and yolk of the egg. Cream the butter and sugar thoroughly. Add the yolks to the creamed butter and mix until light and spongy. Sift the baking powder and flour together 2 times. Add the flour and milk according to method c under section D, but stir only a total of 160 strokes after adding the flour and 195 after adding the last of the milk. Add the beaten egg white and fold 30 strokes with a spatula or stir with the spoon. Divide into three cakes, using equal weights of batter for each cake. Bake one at 185°C. (365°F.), the second at a lower temperature, and the third at a higher temperature.
4. Cake-mixer method. Cream butter, sugar, and egg for 3 cakes. Have the butter room temperature or about 25°C. Add the sugar and well-beaten egg, and cream until very light and spongy. Sift the flour and baking powder together 2 times. Divide the creamed mixture into three equal parts.
4a. To part 1 of the creamed mixture add the flour by method a under section D.
4b. To part 2 add the flour by method b under section D.
4c. To part 3 add the flour by method c under section D.
5. Emulsion method. Beat the egg slightly. Melt the butter carefully so that it does not reach a high temperature. Add a few drops of the melted butter to the egg and beat with an egg beater. After the emulsion is started add more butter. The butter is added to the egg in the same manner as in making mayonnaise. After the butter is added to the egg add the sugar gradually. Sift the baking powder and flour together 2 times. Add the flour and milk by method a, b, or c under section D.
6. Conventional-sponge. Prepare 1/4 or proportion of recipe desired. Cream 1/2 of the sugar and fat thoroughly. Add a tablespoon of flour, with which the baking powder has been sifted 2 times, and fold 20 times. Add 1/2 of the remaining flour and 1/2 of the milk and stir 75 additional strokes or a total of 95. Repeat, adding the rest of the flour and milk. Total strokes 170. Beat the egg, adding the remaining sugar gradually, until mixture is very light and looks like sponge cake batter. Combine quickly with the cake batter using 55 strokes, making a total of 225 strokes after starting to add the flour.
7. Repeat E6 using melted butter or oil, or both. In addition a soft lard may be used. For fats other than butter increase the salt to 4 grams.
8. When an oil or soft fat is used, a much better texture is obtained if the egg goes into the cake batter late in the mixing process, for less fat is emulsified as an oil-in-water emulsion. Increase the salt to 4 grams for fats other than butter. Some other methods that may be tried are: a. Combine by any method desired but add the thoroughly beaten whole egg last.
b. Combine the egg with the milk.
Which method of mixing gives the best cake? Is one method of adding the flour preferable to another? Which method of adding the flour is quickest and easiest? Should cakes made with different fats always be combined by the conventional method or can different methods be used to advantage for some fats and oils? Is there any advantage in separating the yolk and white of the egg in a plain cake?
F. To determine the effect of varying the proportion of the ingredients in the plain cake recipe upon texture, volume, and flavor.
Prepare the full recipe unless otherwise indicated. Cream by the method decided upon by the class. Follow directions under A. Use a tartrate baking powder and divide the batter into six cakes of 150 grams each. Notice any changes occurring in the batter during mixing.
1. Increase the eggs in the recipe to 4. Prepare 1/2 the recipe, using a total of 100, 150, and 200 strokes respectively for the three cakes.
2. Repeat Fl, but separate the yolk and white of the egg. Add the beaten white with the flour and milk.
3. Increase the sugar in the recipe to 1 1/2 cups.
4. Increase the sugar in the recipe to 2 cups. Stir the left-over batter from the sixth cake a total of 1500 strokes and bake 150 grams for a seventh cake.
5. Increase the fat in the recipe to 3/4 cup. Prepare 1/2 the recipe using a total of 100, 150, and 200 strokes for the three cakes.
6. Increase the sugar in the recipe to 1 1/2 cups, the fat to 3/4 cup, and the eggs to 3. A seventh cake may be baked from the batter left over after weighing the sixth cake. It should be stirred 1500 strokes.
7. Increase the flour in the recipe to 3 1/2 cups. Prepare 1/2 the recipe using a total of 100, 150, and 200 strokes for the three cakes.
Characteristic appearance of crust
Shape of top and edges
Results and conclusions.
Give characteristic differences in the appearance of the crust for each series as the mixing is increased. The characteristic differences in crust when the proportion of different ingredients are changed. Compare the texture of each series. Of the different series. What is the effect on the volume of increasing the different ingredients? Which amount of mixing gives a cake of the best texture in each series? Do the cakes with the best texture usually have the best flavor? The increase of which ingredients increases tenderness, volume, velvetiness, toughness, and breadiness of the cake?
G. To determine the effect on the texture, volume, and flavor of plain cake of varying the ingredients used.
Prepare 1/6 of the recipe. Use the proportion of ingredients found best under F and the type of baking powder desired. Combine by whatever method the class decides to use and mix with the number of strokes that will give the best texture for the brand of baking powder used. Use 150 grams of batter for each cake.
Use, (a) milk; (b) water; (c) orange juice; (d) pineapple juice; (e) sour cream; and (f) sour milk. What other changes will need to be made for (e) and(f)?
Use different kinds of granulated sugar obtainable, such as (a) fine granulated, berry, and transformed; (b) powdered sugar; and (c) brown sugar. Always substitute sugar by weight.
Double the salt for all fats other than butter. Use, (a) butter; (b) different types of lard, i.e., grainy and smooth, and prime-steam and open-kettle rendered; (c) oil; (d) Crisco; (e) Spry; and (f) any other fat commonly used in your locality.
Use, (a) a hard-wheat all-purpose flour; (b) a soft-wheat all-purpose; and (c) a specially prepared cake flour.