Fruit jams are made in the same way as marmalades, except that the fruit is simply mashed, and the seeds and the skins are left in it.

Rhubarb Jam No. 1

Seven pounds rhubarb, three and one-half pounds sugar, two unpeeled lemons, sliced very thin and cut fine. The rhubarb is peeled, cut in inch pieces, stewed, with one-half cup water, until it is a pulp. Add sugar and lemons, and boil until it is of the consistency of jam.

Rhubarb Jam No. 2

Wash rhubarb clean, peel, and cut into lengths. Put to cook in just enough water to prevent burning. Cook until perfectly soft, mash to a pulp, and continue the cooking until it is quite thick. Stir to prevent scorching. Measure by the eye as much sugar as there is rhubarb, and add a teaspoonful of ground ginger to each pint. Add this and the sugar, well mixed, to the rhubarb, and cook until again thick, then put into jars, and, when cool, cover with hot parafiine.

Pickling

Pickling

For pickles a vinegar of some kind is necessary. Cider vinegar is perfectly wholesome and good flavored when made from good apples, and may be wisely used, though a scum will sometimes rise on the pickles made with it. There is in the market a grape vinegar also, a red and white wine vinegar, and a vinegar made in the manufacture of beer, known as "malt vinegar." Vinegar may be made by simply sweetening boiled water and allowing it to set in a warm place, but this is inferior to fruit vinegar. If one wishes a vinegar which is colorless and imparts no flavor of its own to the articles preserved in it, white wine vinegar will be found preferable. Articles pickled in this vinegar are remarkably free from scum, also. Some housekeepers regard a clean horseradish leaf laid in the jar on top of the pickles a safeguard against scum and other impurities.

Watermelon-Rind Pickles

Pare the rind and cut into slices as wide as the rind is thick. Put the rind to cook in boiling water in a granite ware saucepan, using one-half a level teaspoonful of salt to each quart of water, and cook until it becomes translucent. Drain off the water, put the rind into sweet pickle prepared in the manner given below, and let boil half an hour. Tie a cheesecloth tightly over the top of the jar, and set away.

To Prepare Vinegar for Watermelon-Rind Pickles

For each quart of good vinegar use three pints of best brown sugar, and a cup of mixed spices, using more cinnamon in proportion than allspice and cloves, leaving out the bay leaf, unless liked. Boil these together and pour over the pickles. Leave the spice bag in the jar, and keep down with a small plate, or something of the kind. Do not have the vinegar too strong, but just good, acid vinegar.

Cucumber Pickles

Fill a gallon jar with small, freshly gathered cucumbers, sprinkle lightly with salt, fill the jar with boiling wa-ter, and let stand until cold. Drain the water from the cucumbers, put them in a preserving kettle with equal portions of cider vinegar and water, and heat to boiling point. Then pour off the liquid. Put the cucumbers in the jar, add three small, sweet peppers, and half a dozen whole cloves. Cover with cold vinegar, and put away. In a day or two the vinegar should be again scalded and poured over the pickles.