1872. Charles Downing, in his Second Revision of " Fruits and Fruit-trees of America," abandoned the arrangement of fruits by classes and periods of ripening, stating his reasons as follows:

" The distinctive characters of fruits have, during the past quarter of a century, become so much intermingled and hybridized that, after carefully studying them, and comparing them with the orders of classification adopted by authors, we have come to the conclusion that no definite order can safely be made to embrace them. Forms, colors, growths, and periods of ripening are so much interwoven and distributed as to defy all arbitrary rules of classification, and hence we have without hesitation abandoned it entirely, substituting in our work the simple order of the alphabet as confined to names, believing such course will prove the most available and useful."