1856. Dr. Ed. Lucas, the leading pomologist of Germany, presented the following:

Class I

Calvilles. Strawberry or Raspberry Apples.

(Calvillen, Erdburaepfel, Himbeeraepfel).

Form: For the most part fruits of medium size, of longish form ("hochgebauter," high-built), nearly always tapering regularly toward the eye, with several rib-like prominences running out over the convexity of the fruit.

Skin: Delicate, tender, never rough, and only in exceptional cases somewhat russeted, almost always becoming unctuous at maturity, covered with bloom on the tree.

Flesh: Soft, loose, aromatic, mostly of strawberry or raspberry-like flavor, here and there stained with red next the skin.

Core: Almost always open, cells torn (slit).

Orders: 1. Ground, colored. 2. Colored. 3. Striped.

Suborders: a. calyx open. b. calyx closed.

Class II

Schlotter Apples (Schlotteraepfel, Klapperaepfel).

Form: Size medium, large and very large. Form either flat round (Backaepfel), long conical (Sheepnoses), cylindrical (the true Schlotters), often very irregular because of isolated broad prominences ; the convexity of the fruit almost never fully regular.

Skin: Smooth, mostly shining, not, or only seldom, becoming unctuous, firm.

Flesh: Granular, tender, somewhat coarse, seldom spicy, mostly of predominating sourish or sweetish flavor.

Core: Large, irregular, open.

Orders and Suborders as in Class I.

Class III

Gulderlings (Gulderlinge).

Form: Size small to medium, more or less ribbed around the eye; partly of flat round form, somewhat pointed toward the eye (Pseudoor Hybrid Calvilles); partly longish conical or cylindrical (true Gulderlings).

Skin: Smooth, often somewhat russeted, mostly yellowish green and greenish yellow, seldom colored.

Flesh: Delicate, almost Reinette-like, quite firm, sweet, vinous, or predominantly sweet and spicy.

Core: Open, with slit cells or axis much open.

Orders and Suborders as in Class I.

Class IV

Rose Apples (Rosenaepfel).

Form: Size small, medium and large, with gentle prominences around the eye and partly out over the fruit; form mostly regular, often longish and globular.

Skin: Smooth and delicate with bloom, shining when rubbed and by handling, of spicy fragrance, seldom with traces of russet.

Flesh: Soft, loose, sometimes spongy, yielding easily to pressure, often stained red beneath skin, of delicate spicy, fennel, or rose-like flavor.

Core: Usually closed; axis often hollow.

Orders and Suborders as in Class I.

Class V

Pigeons (Taubenaepfel).

Form: Small and medium, not ribbed or not regularly ribbed, longish conical.

Skin: Smooth, shining, delicate, with delicate bloom, rarely with traces of russet.

Flesh: Fine-grained, quite firm, and yet marrowy, juicy, and spicy.

Core: Often four-celled, sometimes open, sometimes closed.

Orders and Suborders as in Class I.