4. Grandis, Osbeck

(C. Aurantium variety grandis, Linn. C. Aurantium variety decumana, Linn. C. decumana, Linn.). Grapefruit (or Pomelo). Shaddock. Pummelo. Fig. 975. A large round-topped tree, with regular branches: spines, if present, slender and flexible, rather blunt: leaves large, dark glossy green above, oval or elliptic-oval, with a broadly rounded base; petiole broadly winged, more or less cordate: flowers axillary, borne singly or in clusters, large, white in the bud; petals white on both sides; stamens 20-25, with large linear anthers; ovary globose, sharply delimited from the deciduous style: fruit very large, 4-6 in. diam., globose, oblate spheroid or broadly pear-shaped, smooth, with 11-14 segments, pale lemon-yellow when ripe, peel 1/4- 1/2in. thick, white and pithy inside; seeds usually very numerous, large, flattened and wrinkled, white inside. - The grapefruit (or pomelo) is now one of the most appreciated citrous fruits grown in the U.S. The culture of this delicious fruit was limited to the Fla. pioneers until some 25 years ago, when the first commercial plantations were made.

Since then, there has been a steady increase in the area devoted to this fruit in Fla., and plantings have been made in Calif., Ariz., and the West Indies. The pummelo of India, called shaddock in Fla., is not grown on a commercial scale, but occurs in many tropical countries. The grapefruit is usually served as a breakfast fruit cut in half and seeded. It is a vigorous grower, even on light sandy loam soils and is coming increasingly into use as a stock upon which to graft other citrous fruits The young trees are tender, but the mature ones are well protected by a dense canopy of leaves and may stand more cold than an orange tree. The grapefruit is much like the orange in its ability to resist cold and is much less easily forced into a new growth by a few warm days in winter than the lime or lemon. The varieties of grapefruit grown in the U. S. have almost all originated in Fla., where the early settlers prop, this tree from seed, thereby originating many slightly different varieties, the more important of which are listed here: Duncan. fruit large, keeps well on the tree, seeds few: tree rather hardy. Hall (Silver Cluster). fruits medium size, produced in large clusters; seeds numerous. Triumph. fruit small or medium size, early: tree rather tender.

Does not succeed well when budded on sour orange stock. Mc-Carty. fruit large, late, borne singly; seeds numerous. A variety recently found in the Indian River region of Fla. Besides these standard varieties of grapefruit of the Fla. seedling type a large number of other similar varieties are cult, locally in the state, such as the Bowen, Excelsior, Josselyn, Leonardy, Manville, May, McKinley, Standard (or Indian River), Walters, and many others. The following varieties differ more or less widely from the old Fla. seedling type. Marsh. fruits large, depressed globose, often seedless; pulp subacid, less bitter than in the other varieties. This variety, though it originated as a seedling in Fla., is best adapted to cult, in Calif., where many of the ordinary Fla. varieties do not succeed well. Pernam-buco. fruits large, skin very smooth, light-colored, late; seeds abundant. Intro, from Pernambuco, Brazil, to the U. S. by the U. S. Dept. of Agric. - The shaddocks or pummelos are seldom cult, in the U. S. The Tresca variety from the Bahama Isls. has large pyriform fruits, with pink flesh of good flavor and abundant seeds: the tree is tender. A pummelo from near Canton, China, is imported into San Francisco on a small scale by the Chinese resident there.

The fruits are pyriform, very thick-skinned, not pink within; seeds numerous. Some seedlings of this variety are to be found at various points in Calif. They are very leafy and of vigorous growth, and make excellent stocks upon which to graft other citrous fruits Many other sorts of pummelos are known from Asia and the Malayan Archipelago and some have been introduced for trial by the Office of Foreign Seed and Plant Introduction of the U. S. Dept. of Agric. The true grapefruit seems to be scarcely known outside of U. S. and the W. Indies. See Grapefruit and Pomelo.

Citrus grandis. (X 2/5)

Fig. 975. Citrus grandis. (X 2/5)

5. Aurantium, Linn

(C. vulgaris, Risso. C. Bigaradia, Risso. C. Aurantium variety Bigaradia, Hook. f.). Sour or Seville Orange. Fig. 976. A medium-sized tree, with a rounded top and regular branches: spines long but flexible and blunt: leaves light green when young, medium-sized, 3-4 in. long, tapering to the somewhat wedge-shaped base, and more or less acuminate at the tip; petiole broadly winged: flowers medium-sized, axillary, single or clustered, white in the bud; petals white on both sides, very fragrant; stamens 20-24; ovary globuiar, sharply delimited from the deciduous style: fruit 2 3/4-3 1/4in. diam., globose, slightly flattened at the tip, with a hollow core when fully ripe; pulp acid, membranes with a bitter taste, segments 10-12; seeds cuneate-oval, flattened, with raised lines, white inside. - The sour or Seville orange is grown all over the world. It is able to withstand more cold than most of the other citrous fruits and is rarely forced into new growth by warm weather occurring in winter. The sour orange is found in a thoroughly naturalized condition in many parts of Fla. where it doubtless was brought by the Spaniards. Most of these wild sour orange trees were dug up and transplanted for use as stocks when orange-culture was being rapidly extended some 25-30 years ago.

The Seville orange, as its name would indicate, is grown on a commercial scale in the vicinity of Seville, Spain, whence the fruits are shipped in large quantities to England and Scotland for use in making orange marmalade, for which this species is best adapted. The petals yield a valuable perfume, oil of Neroli, which is produced in the south of France and the Italian Riviera. The peel of the fruit is sometimes candied and, when fresh, yields an essential oil. The sour orange is grown in a small way in Fla. for home use, the fruits being used for making "orangeade." In the U. S. the sour orange is used almost exclusively as a stock on which to bud other citrous fruit trees. The seeds are in demand by nurserymen at a good price for this purpose. The sour orange is well adapted to grow on a great variety of soils but is especially well fitted for low wet soils, where it is valuable because it is immune to the mal di gomma or foot-rot so destructive to the common orange and lemon on such soils. There are no named varieties of the sour orange in cult, in the U. S. - Mutations: The so-called Citrus myrtifolia, a narrow-lvd form with spineless twigs and short internodes, bearing small flattened sour oranges is a mutation arising from the root of the sour orange.

Chinotto (the Chinoise of the French confectioners). This is a broader-lvd. form of the above described mutation. It is cult, along the northern shore of the Medit. from Genoa to Toulon, yields the small green fruits used for candying. This variety, which should be called the Chinotto, is being tested in the U. S. and may prove adapted for commercial culture on a small scale in this country. Hybrids: Bittersweet. A good-sized tree occurring wild in Fla., is undoubtedly a hybrid between this species and the following. fruits oblong, flattened at the ends; pulp sweet, but the membranes sepa--rating the segments have a bitter taste. The fruit ripens very late on some trees and keeps well on the tree.

Citrus Aurantium. (X 2/5)

Fig. 976. Citrus Aurantium. (X 2/5)