6. Sinensis, Osbeck

(C. Aurantium variety sinensis, Linn. C. Aurantium, Lour, et Auct., not Linn.). Common or Sweet Orange. Fig. 977. A medium-sized tree, with a rounded top and regular branches: spines, when present, slender, flexible, rather blunt: leaves medium-sized, rounded at the base; pointed at the apex; petiole narrowly winged, articulated both with the blade and the twig: flowers medium-sized, smaller than those of the sour orange, white in the bud; petals white on both surfaces; stamens 20-25; ovary subglobose, clearly delimited from the deciduous style: fruit subglobose or oval, pith solid, pulp sweet, membranes not bitter in taste, segments 10-12 or 13 in number; seeds cuneate-ovoid with rugose margined plane surfaces, white inside. - The common or sweet orange is widely cult, in all the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. It is rather tender, not so hardy as the sour or Seville orange, but much more cold-resistant than the lemon or lime. A very few orange trees occur in a semi-wild state in S. Fla. Sweet oranges were doubtless introduced into Fla. by the Spaniards nearly four centuries ago and, as they were prop, by seeds until within the last half-century, many local varieties have arisen there.

Orange-culture has reached its highest development in S. Calif., Where it constitutes one of the most important agricultural industries. Fla. is second only to Calif, in the extent and value of the orange groves, while some oranges are grown in favored spots in La., Texas, and Ariz. - Oranges are the best known and probably the most highly esteemed dessert fruit A few are used in cooking and the peel is sometimes candied. An essential oil is also pressed from the peel. The sweet orange is commonly used as a stock on which to graft other species of citrous fruits It grows well on light well-drained loam or sandy loam soil. On heavy soil it is subject to the mal di gomma or foot-rot. Very many varieties are in cultivation Some of the principal sorts grown in the U. S. are listed here. (1) Florida seedlings-varieties originated in Fla. as a result of prop, oranges from seed, mostly strong-growing trees: Parson Brown. fruits medium-sized, very early. Pineapple. fruits medium or large, very juicy; seeds rather numerous: midseason: tree a strong grower. Homosassa. fruits medium-sized, very juicy: a good bearer and keeper: tree nearly thornless. Madam Vinous. fruits medium or large; pulp coarse-grained, juicy; midseason.

Nonpareil. fruits rather large, flattened; pulp fine-grained, juicy: tree vigorous. Also Arcadia, Summit, Foster, Hick, Magnum Bonum, May, Old Vini, Osceola, Stark, Whittaker, and very many others of the same general type. (2) Florida mutations or hybrids-new sorts originated in Fla., usually differing in some striking way from the old Fla. seedling oranges, perhaps through hybridization with foreign varieties. Boone (Boone's Early). fruits medium size, strongly oval or oblong, very juicy, very late, keeping well on the tree: leaves with petioles varying in width, hue Gim Gong. fruits oval, juicy, ripening very late and holding very well on the tree, even until late summer. A variety newly introduced into cultivated Drake Star. A rare variety with variegated foliage; usually a poor bearer but sometimes bearing a good crop of excellent fruit (3) Mediterranean varieties, largely introduced into Fla. by Sanford and Lyman Phelps, about 30-40 years ago: Ruby. fruits small or medium-sized; peel red-orange; pulp streaked with red when fully ripe, juicy; seeds rather few: rather late: tree vigorous, nearly thornless, prolific. stem Michael. fruits medium-sized, oblong, red-blotched when ripe; flesh wine-red; seeds few; rather early. Jaffa. fruits large, oblong, juicy; seeds few.

Possibly not the same as the celebrated orange of Jaffa, Palestine. Mediterranean Sweet. fruits large, oval, juicy, late: tree nearly thornless. Majorca. fruits round or slightly flattened, juicy: rather late. Hart (Hart's Tardiff). fruits round or slightly oval, medium to large size, juicy; seeds few; ripens very late: similar to the next and thought by some to be identical. Valencia (Valencia Late). fruits medium to large, oval or rounded, juicy, nearly seedless, very late. A prolific variety, largely grown in Calif, and held in cold storage until early autumn. There are many other Medit. varieties of nearly or quite as much value as some of the above, such as, Centennial, Du Roi, Joppa, Paper Rind, Prata, Saul Blood, stem Michael (Blood), etc. - The navel oranges all show a second smaller more "or less included fruit formed at the tip of the main fruit Many varieties are of foreign origin. Washington (Bahia, Washington Navel). fruit large, rounded slightly, pointed at apex; flesh firm, juicy; skin very tough; seedless: early \midseason. The most famous variety of oranges introduced from Bahia, Brazil, by Wm. Saunders of the U. S. Dept. of Agric. in 1870. Its cult, has steadily extended in Calif, until it is the principal variety grown there.

It does not succeed well in Fla. Thompson (Thompson's Improved Navel). A smooth-skinned hard-fleshed variety found by A. D. Shamel to arise as a mutation from the preceding, to which it is inferior in quality though better in appearance. Australian. fruits large, coarse: tree vigorous, but a shy bearer. Also found by Shamel as a variation of the Washington Navel (Bahia). Surprise. fruit medium-sized, rounded or even slightly flattened, juicy, early, seedless. A variety originated by E. S. Hubbard, of Fla. Double Imperial. fruit small or medium-sized, navel hidden; pulp firm; seeds few or none. A Brazilian variety, said to fruit well in Fla. when budded on trifoliate orange stock. There are many other varieties of navel oranges occasionally grown on a commercial scale. In Calif., among others, Golden Nugget and Navelencia; in Fla., Egyptian, Melitensis, and Sustain are known. There are doubtless many more navel oranges which should be tested. See Orange. Hybrids: Citranges are hardy hybrids between the common sweet orange and the trifoliate orange, Poncirus trifoliata.

The principal varieties are the Rusk, Morton, Col-man, Savage, Cunningham and Saunders. See description under Citrange.

Citrus sinensis. (X 2/5)

Fig. 977. Citrus sinensis. (X 2/5)