This section is from the book "The Gardener V1", by William Thomson. Also available from Amazon: The New Organic Grower: A Master's Manual of Tools and Techniques for the Home and Market Gardener.
I, as also, I have no doubt, many of your readers, felt interested in the article describing Dovetail Grafting, in the April number of the 'Gardener.' I confess that to me it was new, but doubtless among the craft there are various modes of performing the operation of grafting, and it is most natural that the mode which one has found to be the most successful is that which one is partial too. I may describe a mode of grafting the Vine which I have adopted for several years, without, I may say, a single failure, and for want of a better way of describing it, I shall name it Tongue-and-wedge Grafting. The operation is performed thus: a young rod is run up from an established Vine, the nearer the root the better (as in the course of two or three years at the most this rod will be substituted for its predecessor); the following spring the particular variety to be worked upon the Vine is taken, and with the knife a thin slice of the bark and wood is taken off the graft on the side to be fitted into the rod, and the graft is prepared to fit into the tongue or wedge an inch or two below the topmost bud, and the operation is completed by being bandaged and clayed, with a little damp moss put round it in the usual way. I have preferred that the stock should be in advance of the graft.
After growth takes place the top is pinched out of the shoot issuing from the topmost bud on the stock; this has the effect of concentrating the force of the sap into the graft, and when the latter makes a growth of 6 inches the top that was pinched is now broken off; the graft will now grow vigorously; so much is this the case, that it produces fruit the following season. I do not know of a better way of renovating old Vines whose roots have been got into a healthy working condition: by this means I have new and improved varieties introduced without being obliged to have recourse to the clearing out of old Vines.. I now give the names of a few varieties that have been treated in the way above described.
A Muscat of Alexandria upon a Sweet Water stock; and in connection with this particular variety it may be interesting to mention that the second year after the grafting was performed, a number of the lowest buds remained dormant, although quite plump, and one would have thought every bud would have produced a shoot (the flow of the sap being so great to the growing point is the only cause that I could assign), until below, on the original stock, a shoot of Sweet Water made its appearance; it was allowed to remain, pinched back, however, to the fifth bud, the consequence being that the buds which remained dormant burst the season following into moderately vigorous shoots, so that the rod from top to bottom has now spurs at regular intervals, and equally fruitful. The second variety that I shall mention is Muscat Hamburg on a Black Hamburg stock: the bunches set uncommonly well and require as much thinning as a Black Hamburg. The third is a Frankenthal on a Black Hamburg; and, fourth, a Mrs Pince Black Muscat, grafted last year and showing fruit upon every shoot this season.
I have a few more varieties, but as they have been inarched last year I shall not extend this paper any further.