This section is from the book "The Gardener V3", by William Thomson. Also available from Amazon: The New Organic Grower: A Master's Manual of Tools and Techniques for the Home and Market Gardener.
This is another indispensable plant for cutting from in winter, and we prefer Standards, for, when fairly established, they require no tying: on stems 30 inches high, and with heads 4 feet through, they have a fine effect. When Standards are to be grown, good free-growing spring cuttings should be selected and shifted on as necessary, never pinching the leader until it has got to the required height, but pinching all the side-shoots as they make their appearance, leaving the leaf attached to the stem. About the end of May give them their last shift for the season, unless they are wanted large in a short time. Before plunging them out of doors, put a good strong stake to each to secure them against high winds, care being taken never to let them suffer for want of water: weak manure-waterings throughout the summer are beneficial to them, and all flowers should be picked off as they make their appearance until September, when they should be lifted and top-dressed; and put into a temperature of 60°, they will flower for a long time.
We have several here in 14-inch pots which have had nothing done to them for some years, unless an occasional surface-dressing. When taken from the open ground they are either put into the early vinery or Peach-house, as we find space for them: here they stand all winter, giving plenty of flowers. When hardened off and danger from frost is over, they are cut hard back and plunged out of doors again.