Like apples, are grown as dwarfs and standards. The former being planted from eight to ten feet apart, the latter from ten to twelve feet. The dwarfs, budded on the quince stock, are mostly used for garden culture, as from their habit they are more suitable, besides having the invaluable quality of coming quicker into bearing. Time was when the adage went, "He that plants pears, plants for his heirs," but this is now no more applicable to the pear than to the peach, for we now have fine crops of pears budded on the quince in three to five years from the time of planting. The trees may be grown as pyramids, or in the bush form, or in small gardens, pear, peach, and other trees are successfully trained in what is called the oblique cordon, which allows a number of varieties to be grown in a small space. Only a general outline of the method can be given here, referring for fuller details to Barry's and other works on fruit culture. A trellis is built about 8 feet high, by nailing a strong top and bottom rail to posts, which should be about 8 feet apart. Slats of inch stuff are put on between the two rails at an angle of 30°; these are fastened on with screws, as when the trees have reached the top, the slats are to be brought down to 45°, and they should be long enough to allow for doing this. Young trees are set in an inclined position in a line with these slats, which are three feet apart. Each tree is cut back to a few buds, and one shoot allowed to grow from the strongest bud, all the others being removed. This shoot as it grows is kept tied to the slat, and when it throws out side-shoots, as it soon will, they are pinched back to three or four leaves, whenever the shoot is sufficiently developed to allow the number of the leaves to be seen. By growing in this inclined position, and by pinching every shoot back to three or four leaves, the tree is dwarfed and made to bear early, and when properly managed, forms a perfect cordon or garland, with fruit along its whole length. Fig. 67 shows a portion of a trellis of this kind. The following/ varieties are recommended for either kind of training. For descriptions see nursery catalogues. Bartlett, Beurre d'Anjou, Duchesse d'Angonleme, Lawrence, Clapp's Favorite, Beurre Bosc, Dana's Hovey, Vicar of Wink-field, Howell, Urbaniste, Seckel, Winter Nelis, Brandy-wine, Doyenn6 d' Ete, Louise Bonne de Jersey, Belle Lucrative, Doyenne Boussock.

Fig. 67. - Cordon-Training Of Pear Trees.