"This is probably as well understood in America as in France. In Burgundy, Champagne, and some other districts it is the practice to renew the vigor of the vines by laying down the cane and rooting the plant in a new place, which quite breaks up the original lines, so the plow can not be used. This is doubtless a good way to renew the strength of the plant, but it is objected to by high authority on the assumption that the older the stalk is the better the wine will be; on the other hand, Champagne vine-dressers have attributed to this practice in a great measure their almost total exemption from the vine disease.

"But then, again, others attribute that exemption to the general and long established custom of spreading over the vineyards a bituminous shale containing sulphur, a well-known antidote; and here we would recommend most strongly to our countrymen a renewed and sustained effort to combat mildew with sulphur. The experience of France and other countries is entirely in its favor, and its use is still felt to be necessary, and is still kept up.

"We think Americans have not been thorough enough, and patient enough. Let them try again, and this time let them begin early, and to be sure to follow carefully these rules on the subject, which have been hitherto much better promulgated than observed. On rich and level land, a common plan in some districts is to set out double rows of vines at wide intervals, in fields chiefly devoted to other crops. The free exposure to sun and air thus secured seems largely to augment the yield, and this will be understood by any one who has noticed the superior productiveness of such of his vines as grow bordering on a wide alley or other open space. This is very different from planting vegetables, etc., among the vines, which is a bad practice.