This section is from "The Horticulturist, And Journal Of Rural Art And Rural Taste", by P. Barry, A. J. Downing, J. Jay Smith, Peter B. Mead, F. W. Woodward, Henry T. Williams. Also available from Amazon: Horticulturist and Journal of Rural Art and Rural Taste.
Notices in planting always think it quite sufficient to place the roots of the newly moved tree in the earth again; old planters take care to prepare deep and wide holes - throwing out all the clayey or poor sub-soil, and mixing the good soil with plenty of manure or compost. New planters replant the roots just as they are - broken and bruised by lifting them out of the ground; old planters carefully smooth the ends of all bruised roots and cut off all broken ones - knowing very well that such roots, if not cut off, lead to a diseased condition of things under ground. Young planters are content with shovelling in the earth upon the roots and tramping it down with the foot till the tree is quite firm - by which many hollows are left under the tree and among the roots - whereby mouldy roots, feeble growth and often death ensues; old planters make it a vital point to see with their own eyes and feel with their own fingers that the fine soil reaches every fibre, and that not a single hollow is left among the larger roots.
Young planters bury a tree three or four inches deeper than it stood before - by which the roots are put so far below the kindly influences of the air that the tree either dies at once or lives the life of a half-starved mendicant for years, scarcely growing at all; old planters plant the tree scarcely so deep as before, knowing that the roots will run down easily, though it is hard for them to run up. Young planters plant their trees on a level, by which, when the ground settles, they find their trees too deep: old planters plant them on a slight hillock, by which, when the ground settles, they stand precisely as they ought.
Young planters with their fine tender-hearted.
ness, cannot bear to shorten the limbs of transplanted trees, and hence their trees struggle hard to live, and probably stand still for a year or two to recover; old planters, with their hard-earned better judgment, shorten-back half or two-thirds of the growth of the current year on all the leading shoots, in all cases - and in trees that have been much mutilated at the roots, they head-in the main branches still more, till some of balance is restored, so that their trees push out vigorous shoots the first year, and at the end of three years are far larger and handsomer than the unpruned heads of the young planters. And, finally, young planters often waste money in staking fell planted trees to hold them up, even in positions not windy; while old planters raise a hillock of earth over the roots eight or ten inches high, thereby steadying the tree, and protecting the roots till spring, when the soil being well settled, they take it away and the tree will stand alone.