This section is from "The Horticulturist, And Journal Of Rural Art And Rural Taste", by P. Barry, A. J. Downing, J. Jay Smith, Peter B. Mead, F. W. Woodward, Henry T. Williams. Also available from Amazon: Horticulturist and Journal of Rural Art and Rural Taste.
We have no doubt that the best time to make cuttings to be used for grafting the pear, cherry, apple, plum, or grape is just before severe frost of winter. The wood is then full of vitality, has lost nothing in evaporation by drying, cold winds, nor have its sap veins or vessels been in any way injured by contraction and expansion of extreme cold. The grafts or cuttings made early in or just before winter may be packed away in damp sand or moss in a cool cellar, where they will keep fresh, and when used in spring will be found much more certain to grow than grafts cut during or after mid-winter, and more or less injured or reduced in vitality from exposure to vicissitudes of climatic action.
Lawrence, Kansas, Sept. 29th, 1868. Mr. Editor : Dear Sir - I have often read advertisements in the Horticulturist of grapevines two and three years old, and wondered if anybody would buy them, and if so, what could they do with them. But you, of course, will excuse my verdancy when I tell you that I have been in the far West over twenty years, and for the last fourteen years on the great American Desert. Now, we grow vines out here, - yes, and grapes too; and we make wine (not composition) of pure grape juice.
I send you by U S. Express, prepaid, one vine of Rogers' Hybrid No. 3, grown from a single bud; said bud was put in the sand-bed on the 2d of March last; was kept in the propagating - house until the 4th of May; then it was planted in the field, where it remained until September 21. This vine is an average of about 12,000 grown in the same way, and my reason for sending it to you is to know if in your opinion we have any need of two and three year old vines, or if you would prefer layers or cuttings of vines to such as this ?
[The vine was duly received, and is the largest vine we ever saw that was raised from a single eye in one season. - Ed].
Detroit, Sept. 23,1868.
Adopting this theory in the case of a cold grapery, I was formerly troubled by more or less mildew. For the last three years I have tried the experiment of never all<>wing the grapery to be closed entirely. On the contrary, the three sashes in the top glass have not been closed at all after danger from frost had passed in the spring, during the above time, till into November. Not only this, - I have lattice doors at each end of the grapery, and these are the only ones used during the same time. Whether the result is a consequence or merely a coincidence, I am unable to say. I have not been troubled with mildew. I tried the experiment, however, on a hypothesis of my own, and have not had any reason to regret it. My cold grapery is 35 feet long and 15 feet wide, - a "lean-to".
I am yours truly, J. Wiley.
[We have always practiced and advocated abundant ventilation to grape bouses, day and night, after the season is sufficiently advanced that the nights have become warm. The system of ventilation recommended by some authors, varying with almost every hour of the day, we consider useless to a great extent. If sudden storms arise, or great changes of temperature take place,' we should close all ventilators for the time being, but in warm fair weather keep them continuously open. Any system of ventilation, however, will not prevent mildew. We have seen our correspondent's plan tried this present season, even to the lattice doors, and the vines were attacked with mildew in its worst form, which was only checked by sulphur applied with sulphur bellows. In another case, the house was kept constantly open, but mildew attacked the vines when in bloom. In former years these houses have neither of them suffered. - Ed].