This section is from "The Horticulturist, And Journal Of Rural Art And Rural Taste", by P. Barry, A. J. Downing, J. Jay Smith, Peter B. Mead, F. W. Woodward, Henry T. Williams. Also available from Amazon: Horticulturist and Journal of Rural Art and Rural Taste.
It is hardly necessary for us to caution against, or repeat our advice in favor of, the purchase of any tree or vine simply because it is offered at a low price. The buyer should always remember that the "laborer is worthy of his hire," and that the grower of trees and plants for sale has no easy item of life; but if he pursues his profession with regard to sustaining a favorable reputation for integrity and honor, must give his own personal attention to it, and for that attention deserves and must receive a fair compensation. The purchaser of trees, therefore, should make his order, and then add, "Send me the best trees you can, and charge accordingly." One good, well-rooted, well-grown tree or vine is worth half a dozen club-footed, unripe wooded ones.
The application of manure of whatever sort to orchard or vineyard should be in the autumn rather than spring. The rains and frosts of winter assist in disseminating and distributing it by dilution among the soil, and thus render it in condition to be absorbed by the roots early in spring, and by them applied in promoting an early and healthy vigorous growth. If the manure is slightly covered by shallow plowing, no evaporation or loss will take place; or if after the application of the manure a sowing of land plaster (gypsum) be made, it will retain any ammoniacal gases that would otherwise be lost.