This section is from "The Horticulturist, And Journal Of Rural Art And Rural Taste", by P. Barry, A. J. Downing, J. Jay Smith, Peter B. Mead, F. W. Woodward, Henry T. Williams. Also available from Amazon: Horticulturist and Journal of Rural Art and Rural Taste.
In the following remarks respecting Chrysanthemums I shall chiefly confine myself to the mode of cultivating them in pots. As soon as the plants have done flowering, I cut them down, and place them in any convenient corner on the south side of a wall, where they are in some measure sheltered from frost and north-easterly winds. They remain in this situation undisturbed, exeept by watering them now and then, until the present time, when they are removed to a more open place, preparatory to their being wanted for the purpose of propagation. Chrysanthemums may be increased by cuttings, layers, and oflaetts; I have often grown them from the latter; bUt I have found the foliage so apt to go off them, and leave the plants-naked at the bottom, that I greatly prefer cuttings, which, with good treatment, will retain their foliage green and healthy almost to the rims of the pots. The best time for putting in cuttings is the latter end of April, or the beginning of May. I use the points of the best shoots of the current year's wood, not more than 2 or 8 inches in length, cutting them close to a joint and removing the bottom leaves.
When potted, I transfer them to a close frame; and if it is convenient I assist their striking by means of a gentle bottom-heat but this is not absolutely necessary, for they strike readily without it I shade for a few hoars in the day-time, until they have taken root, when I give them plenty of air, and pinch out their tops, which causes them to break freely. When the shoots have grown an inch or two in length, I pot into 8-inch pots, in a mixture of turfy loam and one-third rotten dung, selecting the strongest and bushiest plants, and discarding the rest When potted, I again place them in a dose frame, and shade a little until they have made fresh roots. They are afterwards set out of doors, sufficiently far apart to prevent their being drawn, and kept well supplied with water. When the shoots have grown 8 or 4 inches in length, I again pinch out their tops, in order to make them bushy; and after they have grown an inch in length, I shift the plants into 6-inch pots, placing them again in their former situation; and when they have filled the pots well with roots, I re-pot them into 9-inch pots, in which I flower them, using the same compost as before. I now place them thinly in a nice open place, where they have a free circulation of air; this keeps them dwarf and healthy.
I keep the pots clear of weeds and suckers; water them as often as they require it; and when they have fairly set their flower-buds, I give them some good clear manure water twice a week, or more or less according to the state of the weather. About the beginning of October, I remove some of the most forward plants under glass, giving them plenty of air through the day. The others are taken in as they are required, or as the weather may render necessary; for though hardy, the Chrysanthemum will not stand more than 4° or 5° of frost, without sustaining some injury. I bloom here every year about 160 plants, varying from .one to two feet high, and having from 25 to 80 full blown flowers on each plant many of which do not require a single stake to support them. It may be worth while to remark that, if some of the most promising shoots of out-door plants are layered in the beginning of September, by giving them a twist, and pegging them down a few inches below the surface of the ground, so as to make young plants about ten inches high, they will be well rooted in three weeks, i. «. if they are kept watered.
When rooted they may be taken up and potted in 6-inch pots, and placed in a close frame for a few days, while they make fresh roots; afterwards they should have plenty of air. Plants managed in this way are very suitable for the front shelves of the stage, or for mixing with other plants. The earliest and best flowering of the plants I take cuttings from are selected and planted in any vacant places in the shrubberies, all the shoots being first shortened back to within six inches of the pot This causes them to make more shoots, which are again stopped, thus keeping the plants dwarf and in due bounds and inducing them to bloom at a season when few flowers adorn the garden. - T. R.t in Gardener's Chronicle.