Parsley. Parsley-worm (Papilio asterias). — Larva, inch and a half long, light yellow or greenish yellow with lines and spots ; feeding upon leaves of parsley, celery, carrot, etc. When the worm is disturbed it ejects two yellow horns, with an offensive odor, from the anterior end.

Remedies. — Hand-picking. Poultry are said to eat them sometimes. Upon parsnip, arsenicals. Parsnip. Parsley-worm. — See under Parsley, above. Parsnip Web-worm (Depressaria heracliana). — Larva, about a half inch long, feeding in the flower cluster and causing it to become contorted.

Treatment. — Arsenicals, applied as soon as the young worms appear, and before the cluster becomes distorted. Burn the distorted umbels. Destroy all wild carrots. Pea. Pea-weevil or Pea-bug (Bruchus pisi). — A small brown-black beetle, living in peas over winter. The beetle escapes in fall and spring, and lays its eggs in young pea-pods, and the grubs live in the growing peas.

Treatment. — Hold over infested seed for one year before planting. Late planting in some localities. Fumigation with carbon bisulfid. Pea Aphis (Macrosiphum pisi). — A rather large green plant-louse, often attacking peas in great numbers and causing enormous losses.

Treatment. — Rotation of crops. Early planting. When peas are grown in rows, the brush-and-cultivator method may be used. The plant-lice are brushed from the plants with pine boughs, and a cultivator follows stirring the soil. This operation should be performed while the sun is hot and the ground dry. Most of the lice will be killed before they can crawl back to the plants. Repeat every three to seven days. Peach. Black Aphis (Aphis persicce-niger).— A small black or brown plant-louse which attacks the tops and roots of peach-trees. When upon the roots it is a very serious enemy, stunting the tree and perhaps killing it. Thrives in sandy lands.

Treatment. — Kerosene emulsion. Tobacco decoction and extracts. Round-headed Apple-tree Borer. — See under Apple, p. 308. Flat-headed Borer. — See under Apple.

Katydid. — This insect is often troublesome to the peach in the southern states in the early spring, eating the leaves and girdling young stems.

Remedy. — Poisoned baits placed about the tree. Green Peach-louse or Aphis (Myzus persicae).— A small insect feeding upon the young leaves, causing them to curl and die.

Treatment. — Lime-sulfur, kerosene emulsion, or tobacco decoction. After the buds open, either of the last two. Peach-tree Borer (Sanninoidea exitiosa). — A whitish larva, about three-fourths inch long when mature, boring into the crown and upper roots of the peach, causing gum to exude.

Remedies. — Dig out the borers in June and mound up the trees. At the same time apply gas-tar or coal-tar to the trunk from the roots up to a foot or more above the surface of the ground. Peach Twig-moth (Anarsia lineatella). — The larva of a moth, a fourth inch long, boring in the ends of the shoots, and later in the season attacking the fruit. Several broods.

Remedy. — Spray with lime-sulfur just after the buds swell. Spray trunks and larger branches in late spring to kill first brood pupae in the curls of bark. Peach-tree Bark-beetle (Phlaeotribus liminaris). — A dark brown beetle one-tenth inch in length burrowing under the bark. Treatment. — Burn all brush and worthless trees as soon as the infestation is observed. Keep the trees in healthy condition by thorough cultivation and the use of fertilizers.

Apply a thick whitewash to the trunk and branches three times a season ; first, the last week of March ; second, second week in July ; third, first week in October.

Fruit-tree Black-beetle (Scolytus rugulosus). — A small beetle similar to the last.

Treatment. — Same as preceding.

Plum-curculio (Conotrachelus nenuphar).— In Missouri and Georgia this insect has been successfully controlled on peach by spraying with arsenate of lead, 4 pounds to 100 gallons of self-boiled lime-sulfur. Spray, first when the "husks" drop from the fruit; second, ten days or two weeks later. It is unsafe to spray peaches more than twice with arsenate of lead (p. 329).