Rose-beetle. — See under Grape and Apple, pp. 308, 322.

Red-legged Flea-beetle (Haltica rufipes). — A flea-beetle feeding on the leaves of peach trees, often in great numbers.

Remedies. — The insects fall at once upon being jarred, and sheets saturated with kerosene may be used upon which to catch them. Spray with arsenate of lead in self-boiled lime-sulfur. Pear. Apple-tree Borer. — See under Apple, p. 306.

Bud-moth. — See under Apple.

Codlin-moth. — See under Apple.

Flat-headed Borer. — See under Apple.

Midge (Diplosis pyrivora). — A minute mosquito-like fly ; lays eggs in flower-buds when they begin to show white. These hatch into minute grubs which distort and discolor the fruit. New York and eastward. Prefers the Lawrence. Introduced in 1877 from France.

Remedies. — Destroy the infested pears. Cultivate and plow in late summer and fall to destroy the pupae then in the ground.

Pear-leaf Blister (Eriophyes pyri). — A minute mite which causes black blisters to appear upon the leaves. The mites collect under the bud-scales in winter.

Remedy. — Lime-sulfur or miscible oil as a dormant spray.

Pear-tree Borer (Sesia pyri). — A small whitish larva, feeding under the bark of the pear tree.

Remedy. — Same as for round-headed apple-tree borer.

Pear-twig Beetle (Xyleborus pyri). — Brownish or black beetle, one-tenth inch long, boring in twigs, producing effect much like pear-blight, and hence often known as " pear-blight beetle." It escapes from a minute perforation at base of bud ; probably two broods.

Treatment. — Burn twigs before the beetle escapes. Pear Psylla (Psylla pyricola).— These minute, yellowish, flat-bodied, sucking insects are often found working in the axils of the leaves and fruit early in the season. They develop into minute, cicada-like jumping-lice. The young psyllas secrete a large quantity of honey-dew, in which a peculiar black fungus grows, giving the bark a characteristic sooty appearance. There may be four broods annually, and the trees are often seriously injured.

Treatment. — Clean culture ; remove rough bark from trunks and larger limbs to discourage adults from hibernating on the trees, and spray with miscible oils while trees are dormant. Spray with lime-sulfur wash at strengths used to combat scale, just before leaves appear, to destroy eggs. After blossoms have dropped, spray with whale-oil soap, 1 pound to 5 or 7 gallons of water ; kerosene emulsion diluted with 8 to 12 parts of water; or standardized tobacco decoctions at strengths recommended on containers. If psyllas are abundant, trees should be frequently sprayed. (New York Experiment Station.) Pear Thrips (Euthrips pyri).—Minute insects, 1/20 inch in length, dark brown when adult, white with red eyes when young, that attack the opening bud and young fruits in early spring. They suck the sap from the tender growth, and the females lay eggs in the fruit stems, causing a loss of the crop. The nymphs hibernate in the ground a few inches from the surface. A serious pest in California and recently introduced into New York.

Treatment. — Thorough cultivation during October, November, and December (in California). Make two applications of " Black-leaf " tobacco extract, 1 gallon in 60 gallons of 2 per cent distillate oil emulsion, the first just as the fruit buds begin to open, the second just after the petals fall. In the East it may be controlled by timely applications of tobacco extract and whale-oil soap. Pecan. Bud-moth (Proteopteryx deludana). — A brownish caterpillar about one-half inch in length, feeding on the opening buds in early spring and on the underside of the leaves in summer.

Treatment. — Arsenate of lead in summer to kill larvae of second brood. Lime-sulfur and arsenate of lead in dormant season just before buds open, to destroy hibernating larvae. Case-bearer (Acrobasis nebulella). — A small caterpillar living inside a case which it carries with it. It attacks the opening buds. Treatment. — Arsenate of lead as soon as the buds begin to open. Repeat if necessary.