Tent-caterpillars (Malacosoma americana and M. disstria). -Larva, nearly two inches long, spotted and striped with yellow, white, and black ; feeding upon the leaves. They congregate in tents or in clusters on the bark at night and in cool weather, and forage out upon the branches during the day.

Treatment. — Arsenicals, as for Codlin-moth (p. 306). Burn out nests with torch, or cut them out and crush the larvae. Pick off egg masses from twigs during winter and spring.

Tussock-moth (Hemerocampa leucostigma).— A handsome, redheaded, yellow and black tufted caterpillar, about an inch long, which devours the leaves and sometimes eats into the fruit.

Remedial. - Collect the frothy egg-masses in fall and winter and band the trees to prevent a reinfestation by migrating caterpillars. Spray with arsenicals as for codlin-moth, taking care to cover the under side of the leaves.

Twig-borer (Schistoceros hamatus). - Beetle, three-eighths inch long, cylindrical and dark brown, boring into twigs of apple, pear, and other trees. The beetle enters just above a bud.

Treatment. - Burn the twigs. The early stages are passed in dying wood such as prunings, diseased canes, and in upturned roots. Burn such rubbish, and thus destroy their breeding-places. This is also a grape pest.

TWIG-PRUNER (Elaphidion villosum). - Yellowish white larvae, about a half inch long, boring into young twigs, causing them to die and break off.

Treatment. — Burn the twigs.

Woolly Aphis {Schizoneura lanigera). - Small reddish-brown plant-lice covered with a conspicuous mass of white, waxy fibers, found on the branches, sprouts, trunks, and roots. Preventive. - Do not set infested trees.

Treatment. - For the form above ground drench the infested parts with 15 per cent kerosene emulsion ; for the underground form remove the earth beneath the tree to a depth of 3 inches, and apply 10 per cent kerosene emulsion liberally, and replace the earth. In the case of nursery stock the emulsion may be applied in a shallow furrow close to the row. Apricot. Pear Twig-beetle. - See under Pear, p. 326. Pin-hole Borer. - See Bark-beetle under Peach, p. 325. Plum-curculio. — See under Plum, p. 329.

Brown Apricot-scale (Eulecanium armeniacum).— A soft brown scale infesting the under side of the smaller branches.

Treatment. — Spray with resin and fish-oil compound, taking care to hit the underside of the twigs. In California the application should be made in January and February. Asparagus. Common Asparagus-beetle (Crioceris asparagi).—

Beetle, less than one-fourth inch in length, yellow, red, and shining black, with conspicuous ornamentation, feeding upon the tender shoots. Larva feeds upon the leaves and tender bark.

Treatment. — Freshly slaked lime dusted on before the dew has disappeared in the morning. Poultry. Cut down all plants in early spring to force the beetles to deposit their eggs upon the new shoots, which are then cut every few days before the eggs hatch; or leave a row or so around the field as a lure for the beetles where they may be killed with arsenicals. The Twelve-spotted Asparagus-beetle (Crioceris 12-punctata). — Similar to the last, but with twelve spots on the wing-covers.

Treatment. — Similar to that used above, except that the grubs cannot be destroyed by lime, since they live within the berry. Asparagus Miner (Agromyza simplex). — A maggot mining under the skin near the base of the plant.

Treatment. — Leave a few volunteer plants as a trap in which the fly will deposit her eggs. Pull and burn these plants in late June and early July.

Aster. Aster-worm (Papaipema nitela). - A small larva boring in the stem of garden asters about the time they begin to flower, causing the heads to droop.

All infested stocks should be burned. Destroy by burning all rank weeds, such as ragweed and cocklebur, before September.