Leaf Blister Mite (Eriophyes pyri). - The presence of this minute mite is indicated by small irregular brownish blisters on the leaves.

Treatment. - Spray in late fall or early spring with lime-sulfur, or miscible oil. For dilution of commercial lime-sulfur, see p. 296. Flat-headed Borer (Chrysobothris femorata). - Larva about an inch long, flesh-colored, the second segment (" head ") greatly enlarged ; boring under the bark and sometimes into the wood. They are readily located in late summer or fall by the dead and sunken patches of bark.

Preventive. - Soap and carbolic acid washes applied from May to July. Keep trees vigorous.

Treatment. - Dig out the borers in early summer and fall. Encourage woodpeckers. Pear Twig-beetle. - See under Pear, p. 326. Plum-curculio (Conotrachelus nenuphar). — Beetle; deforms the fruit by its characteristic feeding and egg-laying punctures. The grubs develop in the fruit and cause it to fall.

Treatment. - Spraying with arsenate of lead, as for codlin-moth, whenever it can be applied with a fungicide so as not to increase expense, will help to control the trouble. Thorough superficial tillage of the surface soil during July and August will kill many of the pupae, and is recommended. For treatment on plum, see under Plum, p. 329.

Railroad-worm. - See Apple-maggot, p. 306.

Root-louse, "American Blight." - See under Woolly Aphis, page 310.

Rose-chafer. - See under Grape, p. 322. At the first appearance of the beetles spray plants with arsenate of lead at the rate of 8 or 10 pounds to 100 gallons of water, to which should be added 1 gallon of molasses (New York Experiment Station).

Round-headed Borer (Saperda Candida). - A yellowish white larva, about one inch long when mature. It is said to remain in the larval state three years.

Preventive. - Keep the beetles from laying eggs by spraying the trunks several times during the spring and summer with kerosene emulsion or by coating them with an alkaline wash made from soap, caustic potash, and carbolic acid. Tarred paper tree-protectors well tied at the top, or wire mosquito netting protectors closed at the top and encircling the trunk so loosely that the beetles cannot reach the bark, are effective in preventing egg-laying. Practice clean cultivation, and do not let water sprouts or other rank vegetation encircle the base of the tree.

Remedial. - Dig out the borers whenever they can be located by discolored bark or by the sawdust thrown out of the burrow.

San Jose Scale (Aspidiotus perniciosus). - Seep. 304.

Leaf-crumpler (Mineola indigenella) - Reddish brown caterpillars that live in slender, horn-shaped cases and feed on the tender leaves. They hibernate as partly grown larvae and attack the opening buds the following spring. They usually live in a nest of several leaves fastened together with silk.

Treatment.— Gather the nests and burn them. Arsenicals when the buds open.

Oyster-shell Scale (Lepidosaphes ulmi). - This is an elongate scale (sometimes called bark-louse), one-eighth inch in length, resembling an oyster-shell in shape and often incrusting the bark. It hibernates as minute white eggs under the old scales. The eggs hatch during the latter part of May or in June, the date depending on the season. After they hatch, the young may be seen as tiny whitish

APPLE INSECTS lice crawling about on the bark. When these young appear, spray with kerosene emulsion, diluted with 6 parts of water, or whale-oil, or any good soap, 1 pound in 4 or 5 gallons of water. Where trees are regularly sprayed with lime-sulfur as for the San Jose scale or blister mite, the oyster-shell scale is usually controlled.

Scurfy Scale (Chionaspis furfurus). - This whitish, pear-shaped scale, about one-eighth inch in length, often incrusts the bark, giving it a scurfy appearance. It hibernates as purplish eggs under the old scales.

Treatment. - Spray as recommended for Oyster-shell Scale (p. 308).