Apple. Apple-bucculatrix (Bucculatrix pomifoliella). - A minute yellow or green larva feeding upon the upper surface of the leaves, causing the lower surface to turn brown. The cocoons are white and slender, and are laid side by side upon the under side of twigs, where they are conspicuous in winter.

Treatment. - Lime-sulfur while tree is dormant. Arsenicals for the larvae in summer. Apple-curculio (Anthonomus quadrigibbus). - A soft, white grub, about half an inch long, living in the fruit.

Treatment. - Clean cultivation. Rake the small apples that drop early out into the sun where they will dry up. See Plum-curculio, p. 329. x

Apple Flea-beetle (Graptodera foliacea). - Brassy, green beetle, one-fifth inch or less long, feeding upon leaves.

Treatment. - Arsenicals. Lime-sulfur or bordeaux mixture as a repellent.

Apple-maggot or Railroad-worm (Rhagoletis pomonella). - Maggot ; infests harvest and fall apples mostly, occasionally attacks winter fruit. It tunnels apples through and through, causing the fruit to fall to the earth.

Treatment. - Pick up all windfalls every two or three days, and either feed them out or bury them deeply, thus killing the maggots. Pasture to hogs.

Bud-moth (Tmetocera ocellana). - The small brown caterpillars with black heads devour the tender leaves and flowers of the opening buds in early spring.

Treatment. - Make two applications of either 1 pound paris green or 4 pounds arsenate of lead in 100 gallons of water ; the first when the leaf-tips appear, and the second just before the blossoms open. If necessary, spray again after the blossoms fall. In cases where lime-sulfur is used just before the buds open for scale or blister mite, arsenate of lead, 4 pounds to 100 gallons, may be added and will help to control the bud-moth.

Case-bearers. The pistol-case-bearer (Coleophora malivorella) and the cigar-case-bearer (C. fletcherella). - The small caterpillars live in pistol or cigar-shaped cases, about a quarter of an inch long, that they carry around with them. They appear in spring on the opening buds at the same time as the bud-moth, and may be controlled by the same means.

Canker-worm. Spring and fall (Paleacrita vernata and Alsophila pometaria). - Larva ; a " measuring worm," an inch long, dark, and variously striped, feeding upon the leaves.

Preventive. - Band the trees with tanglefoot to prevent the wingless females from climbing.

Treatment. - Arsenicals, thoroughly applied in spray, are very effective. See Banding, p. 286.

Codlin-moth (Carpocapsa pomonella). - This is the pinkish caterpillar which causes a large proportion of wormy apples. The eggs are laid by a small moth on the leaves and the skin of the fruit. Most of the caterpillars enter the apple at the blossom end.

When the petals fall, the calyx is open, and this is the time to spray. The calyx soon closes, and keeps the poison inside ready for the young caterpillars' first meal. After the calyx has closed, it is too late to spray effectively. The caterpillars become full grown in July and August, leave the fruit, crawl down on the trunk, and there most of them spin cocoons under the loose bark. In most parts of the country there are two broods annually.

Treatment. - When the majority of the petals have fallen, spray with 1 pound paris green or 4 pounds arsenate of lead in 100 gallons of water, using a stiff spray to force it into the blossom end of the apple. Repeat the application three weeks later. For use of the poison with bordeaux or lime-sulfur, see Apple Scab, p. 264. Fall Web-worm (Hyphantria cunea). - Hairy larva, about an inch long, varying from gray to pale yellow or bluish black, feeding upon the leaves of many trees, in tents or webs.

Treatment. - Destroy by burning the webs, or removing them and crushing the larvae. Spray with arsenicals.