Forestry is the raising of timber crops. It is not the planting of shade trees or ornamental trees, or even of groves, but the planting and rearing of forests. The primary product of the forest is timber; usually the timber is sawed into boards, known collectively in North America as lumber (lumber is properly and differently used in England) ; some timber is used for fire-wood, some for wood-pulp, and some for other uses. In the trades, timber usually means the squared or heavy sawed product used in framework.

Planting Notes Nursery planting-table for forest trees (Farmer's Bulletin)

Chapter XII Forestry and Timber 105

1 Difficult to transplant on account of tap root. Advisable to sow seeds in permanent sites in field whenever possible.

2 Easily grown from cuttings. Not necessary or advisable to attempt growing from seed.

Nursery planting-table for forest trees - Continued

Chapter XII Forestry and Timber 106

For number of tree seeds in a pound, see Chapter V.

1 Difficult to transplant on account of tap root. Advisable to sow seeds in permanent sites in field whenever possible.

Note on the conifers (Mulford). — White pine, Scotch pine, and Norway spruce seed should be collected as soon as it is ripe, in September. The cones should be dried, allowing the seed to fall out. The seed should be stored for the winter in bags hung in a dry, cool place, and should be sown thickly in the spring, covering with about one-eighth inch of soil. From 60 to 90 per cent of the seed should germinate. One-year-old seedlings are from one and one-half to three inches high.

Forest planting (Mulford).

Forest planting is usually done with the mattock (grub hoe). A space about twelve to sixteen inches square should be cleared of all growth, and a hole dug in the middle of this large enough to receive the roots comfortably. Another method is to plow and harrow the ground, mark out with a corn marker, and simply set the tree in a slit pried open with a common spade, the slit being closed by a second thrust of the spade. By the former method, from 250 to 600 trees per day per man can be planted; by the latter method, from 800 to 2000 trees. Forest trees are ordinarily planted 4 X 4, 5 X 5, or 6 X 6 feet (i.e. about 2700, 1750, and 1200 trees per acre, respectively), the closer spacing being more necessary with slow-growing trees and on poor soils.