Before applying any dressing, the wounds should be thoroughly cleaned. Cut out or remove the broken bark and the decayed wood. It is also advisable to disinfect with Bordeaux mixture or a solution of corrosive sublimate, 1 ounce in 7 gallons.

It should be remembered that dressings do not hasten the healing of wounds, but they allow the healing process to progress unchecked, because they prevent the wounds from drying out and protect them from disease.

1.  Any of the above grafting-waxes are excellent for dressing wounds, although most of them cleave off after the first year, in which case it is necessary to apply another dressing.

2.  Hoskins' wax. — Boil pine-tar slowly for three or four hours ; add \ pound of beeswax to a quart of the tar. Have ready some dry and finely sifted clay, and when the mixture of tar and wax is partly cold, stir into the above-named quantity about 12 ounces of the clay ; continue the stirring until the mixture is so stiff and so nearly cool that the clay will not settle. This is soft enough in mild weather to be easily applied with a knife or spatula. — Used by the late Dr. Hoskins, of Vermont.

3.  Schaefell's healing-paint.—Boil linseed oil (free from cottonseed oil) one hour, with an ounce of litharge to each pint of oil ; then stir in sifted wood ashes until the paint is of the proper consistency. Pare the bark until smooth, as the fuzzy edge left by the saw will cause it to die back. Paint the wound over in dry weather, and if the wound is very large, cover with a gunny-sack.

4.  Paint. — One of the most convenient and useful dressings for wounds is paint. Use white lead, but mix thicker than usually applied. A little lampblack should be added to this until the paint is nearly the color of the bark. Apply with a brush or swab, working the paint into the grain of the wood. Be careful that it does not run down from the wound.

5.  Coal-tak. — Coal-tar is sometimes useful as a dressing, especially for shade or ornamental trees. Apply a thin coating to the wound.

6.  Tar for bleeding in vines. Add to tar about three or four times its weight of powdered slate or some similar substance.

7.  Collodion for bleeding in vines. In some extreme cases two or three coats will be needed, in which case allow the collodion to form a film before applying another coat. Pharmaceutical collodion is better than photographic.

8.  Cement for cavities. Rotten spots and cavities in trees should be cleaned out to hard wood, the place filled solid with good cement. (See Manual of Gardening, 145-151.)

The grafting-waxes are applied to the cut surfaces of graft-unions for the purpose of preventing evaporation of the plant juices, and protecting from weather and the germs of decay. Buds covered by wax will push through as they grow. The softer the wax when it is applied, the closer will be its adhesion to the wood. Wax is often applied to ordinary wounds; but if the wounds are large they should first be treated with antiseptics (as bordeaux mixture or similar compounds).