Summary for one herd of 16 cows for the year, February to February

 Age of Cow Lb. of Milk given for the Year Average Per CentFat Value ofMilk for the Year at 4 Cents per Quart TotalIncome for the Year, countingManure and Calf worth \$12 Cost of Food for the Year Total CostFOR THEYear, charging \$45 PER COW FORLabor, Depreciation,Taxes,Insurance,Etc. Net Profit or LossFOR THEYear per Cow 3 3289 5.0 \$61.18 \$68.18 \$34.68 \$57.18 \$11.00 10 4312 3.6 80.23 86.39 35.69 54.44 31.95 3 3209 4.2 59.69 65.85 32.93 51.68 14.17 3 2634 4.0 49.00 54.33 31.56 46.56 7.77 9 4507 3.1 83.84 95.84 62.94 107.94 -12.10 8 7685 3.1 142.98 154.98 71.67 116.67 38.31 9 6735 3.0 125.40 137.40 69.70 114.70 22.70 9 7493 3.6 139.40 151.40 75.85 120.85 30.55 9 7853 2.9 146.10 158.10 71.00 116.00 42.10 — 6454 3.2 120.07 132.07 70.15 115.15 16.92 10 5678 4.3 105.64 117.64 63.40 108.40 9.24 8 5439 3.6 101.20 113.20 58.13 103.13 10.07 9 1804 4.3 33.57 39.73 25.66 44.41 -4.68 6 6214 3.7 115.52 127.52 68.29 113.29 14.23 10 5738 5.1 106.76 118.76 61.98 106.98 11.78 8 7023 2.9 130.6 14.96 59.14 96.64 44.32

Profit or loss in fattening steers (Nebraska Bulletin 116)

84 days' feeding

 Initial cost of 1043-pound steer...... @ \$ 5.00 per cwt. \$52.15 Cost of 1680-pounds corn...... @ 52c per bu. 15.60 Cost of 640-corn-stover........ @ 4.00 per T. 1.28 Cost of 570-alfalfa hay........ @ 7.00 per T. 2.00 Risk, labor, and shelter........ 5.00 Total cost . 76.03 Selling price, 1274-pound steer...... 6.02 per cwt. 76.70 Value of manure.......... 5.00 Income........ 81.70 Total cost of steer . 76.03 Total profit .... 5.67 Profit per \$ 1.00 invested....... .08

Profit or loss in fattening sheep (Ohio Bulletin 187)

96 days' feeding

 Initial cost of 50-pound lamb........... @ \$ 6.00 per cwt. \$3.00 Cost of 134 pounds corn......... @ 40c per bu. .96 Cost of 125 pounds clover hay.......... @ 12.00 perT. .75 Risk, labor, and shelter........ .50 Total cost .... 5.21 Selling price, 74-pound lamb...... @ 7.00 per cwt. 5.18 Value of manure......... .60 Income......... 5.78 Total cost .... 5.21 Profit...... .57 Profit per \$ 1.00 invested...... .11

Profit or loss in fattening swine (Indiana Bulletin 137)

60 days' feeding

 Initial cost of 115-pound hog.......... @ \$ 5.25 per cwt. \$6.04 Cost of 214 pounds corn-meal............. @ 18.00 perT. 1.93 Cost of 214 pounds middlings............. @ 25.00 perT. 2.67 Risk, labor, and shelter........ .75 Total cost .... 11.39 Selling price, 234-pound hog........ @ 5.25 12.29 Value of manure.......... .50 Total income........... 12.79 Total cost .... 11.39 Profit ...... 1.40 Profit per \$ 1.00 invested...... .12

Cow-testing Associations (Cornell Station)

All evidence goes to show that the dairy business maintains a fairly profitable status only because good individual cows make up for the deficiencies of the poor ones. The elimination of poor producing

COW-TESTING ASSOCIATIONS animals is undoubtedly the first step toward improvement, and this elimination cannot be successfully brought about unless records of individual production of each cow are systematically kept, and along with such records of production, it is also, if not absolutely essential, at least highly desirable, that a record of food consumed as well be kept.

There is no reason why any dairyman should not himself keep the records that are necessary for this selection, but the fact that most dairymen do not keep such records has led to the formation of cow-testing associations, so that the ordinary dairyman by cooperative effort may secure information at small cost that in most cases he would not take the trouble to secure for himself.

Cow-testing Associations may be organized in various ways and under various plans, and each association should be organized with due regard to its own local conditions. The essential feature in any organization is to secure a good, reliable, trustworthy, and painstaking man to do the work. Such organizations have now been in successful operation in other states for several years, and it would seem that the time is ripe for the dairymen of New York State to avail themselves of these organizations in order to make their business more satisfactory and more profitable.

The most feasible method of organizing such associations seems to be for twenty-five or twenty-six dairies to associate themselves into a cow-testing association, each owner agreeing to weigh the milk of each cow every day, and the tester to test the milk of each cow at least for one day each month. This may be done by the tester himself visiting the individual farms in turn and taking the samples and making the test ; or it may be done by the owners themselves taking the samples and carrying them to a central point to be tested. In either case the tester makes the tests, calculates the production of fat for the cow for the month, and makes record of the same and of the food consumed, and reports regularly to the owner on blanks furnished for the purpose.

The details of carrying out this work may be varied to suit conditions. In any case it would require the services of a reliable man for his whole time, and this man will have to be paid a fair salary. Experience has shown that an assessment of one dollar for each cow represented in the association will cover the expense of the work for a year, and in some cases it has been done for somewhat less than this.

Apparatus required.

Babcock tester, not less than 10-bottle size, and if to be used in a creamery where steam is available, at least 24-bottle size. Babcock glassware (state brand). At least twice as many test bottles as the capacity of the machine, with acid measure, pipettes, thermometer, etc.

Sulfuric acid, — about a pint or two pounds per cow per year.

Sixty-pound spring balance scales, graded to tenths.

As many wide-mouth sample bottles as there are cows in the largest herd to be tested. Each bottle should be supplied with a numbered metal band, or otherwise plainly and durably labeled.

A supply of record blanks, ruled so that the whole record for a cow for a year can be entered upon it.