1.  To secure a good grout floor, make a good foundation of small stones or brickbats, and cover three or four inches thick with a thin mortar, made of two parts sharp sand and one part common cement.

2.  Fresh powdered lime, 2 parts ; portland cement, 1 part; gravel, broken stone, or brick, 6 parts. Mix with water to a liquid consistency, and let it be thrown forcibly, or dropped, into its position. It should be well beaten or rammed to render it solid. A " skim " of thin, rich mortar may be placed on top as a finish.

3.  Equal parts of gravel, well screened, and clean river or pit sand. With 5 parts of sand and gravel mix 1 part of portland cement. Mix with water and apply 1 inch thick.

For garden borders.

4.  Nine parts gravel and 1 part unslaked lime ; slake the lime and cover it with gravel, then add water sufficient to make a very thin mortar. Apply three inches deep, allow it to stiffen a little, then roll. Finish an inch thick of 1 part lime and 3 parts gravel. Apply soft. See No. 11.

For walks.

5.  Walks should always have a well-made foundation of stones or brickbats to give hardness and insure drainage. The top of the walk may be made of gravel, sifted coal ashes, cinders from foundries, furnaces, etc. If gravel is used, care should be exercised to avoid the round or washed gravel, particularly that lying in the beds of streams, for it will not pack. One part of clean clay to four or five of gravel makes a good walk. Or the following old English recipes may be used (6-10) :

6.  One part mineral pitch, 1 part resin, 7 parts chalk, and 2 parts coarse sand. Boil together, and lay it while in a hot state, adding a little gravel.

7.  Boil for a short time 18 parts of mineral pitch and 18 parts of resin in an iron kettle ; then add 60 parts of coarse sand, mix well and lay on the path to the thickness of one inch ; then sift a little fine gravel over it and beat it down before the cement sets.

8.  Put down a coat of tar, and sift some road sand or coal ashes over it very thickly. When this is dry, repeat the operation until you have four coats of tar and as many of coal ashes or road sand.

9.  Two parts of thoroughly dried sand, one part cinders, thoroughly dried. Mix together ; then spread the sand and cinders on the ground and make a hole in the center, into which pour boiling-hot tar and mix into a stiff paste ; then spread on the walk, beat and roll.

10.  Two parts lime rubbish and one part coal ashes, both very dry and finely sifted ; in the middle of the heap make a hole; into this pour boiling-hot coal-tar ; mix to a stiff mortar and spread on the ground two or three inches thick. The ground should be dry and beaten well. Cover with coarse sand ; when cold, roll well.

11.  Cement walks. A good method of making concrete walks is to lay four to six inches on well-drained compact ground in proportion of 1 part cement to 6 of binder, as: 40 shovels fine cinders, 15 shovels sharp sand, 1 sack portland cement. Put on a finish, while the under part is not hard set, made of 30 shovels screened sharp sand and 1 sack portland. Also used for borders and gutters.

For foundations

12.   Concrete foundations for buildings and heavy work may be made of portland cement, 2 parts; sand, 7 parts; gravel, 1 part.

Coloring cement work.

For gray or black, lampblack may be employed. For yellow or buff, yellow ocher. For red, Venetian red. For blue, ultramarine. For brown, umber.