1.    (Slow setting.) Sal ammoniac, 2 ounces ; sulfur, 1 ounce; clean iron borings or filings reduced to powder, 12 pounds ; water enough to form a thin paste. Excellent for making a rust joint. If a quick-setting joint is desired, use half as much sal ammoniac as sulfur, and half as much iron borings as above ; not so good as above

2.  Sal ammoniac, 2 ounces ; iron-filings, 8 pounds ; sufficient water.

3.  One or two parts of sal ammoniac to 100 of iron-filings. When the work is required to set quickly, increase the sal ammoniac slightly and add a small amount of sulfur.

4.  Iron-filings, 4 pounds ; pipe-clay, 2 pounds ; powdered potsherds, 11 pounds ; make into a paste with moderately strong brine.

5.  Equal parts of red and white lead, mixed into a paste with boiled linseed oil. Used for making metallic joints of all kinds.

6.  To four or five parts of clay, thoroughly dried and pulverized, add 2 parts of iron-filings, free from oxide, 1 part of peroxide of manganese, 1/2 of sea salt, and 1/2 of borax ; mix well, and reduce to a thick paste with water. Use immediately. Expose to warmth, gradually increasing almost to white heat.

7.  Sifted coal ashes, 2 parts, and common salt, 1 part. Add water enough to make a paste, and apply at once. This is also good for stoves and boilers, as it stands heat.

Boiler cements.

8.  Chalk, 60 parts; lime and salt, of each, 20 parts ; sharp sand, 10 parts ; blue or red clay and clean iron-filings, of each, 5 parts. Grind together and calcine or heat.

9.  Powdered clay, 6 pounds ; iron-filings, 1 pound. Make into a paste with linseed oil.

10.  Powdered litharge, 2 parts ; silver sand and slaked lime, of each, 1 part ; boiled oil enough to form a paste.

These cements are used for stopping leaks and cracks in boilers, iron pipes, stoves, etc. They should be applied as soon as made.

Tar cement.

11.  Coal-tar, one part ; powdered slate (slate flour), three or four parts ; mix by stirring until thoroughly incorporated. Very useful for mending watering-pots, barrels, leaky sash, etc. It remains somewhat elastic. It does not adhere to greasy surfaces. It will keep for a long time before using.

Copper cement.

12.  Beef blood thickened with sufficient finely powdered quicklime to make it into a paste is sometimes used to secure the edges and rivets of copper boilers, kettles, etc. Use immediately.

Fireproof or stone cement.

13.    Fine river sand, 20 parts ; litharge, 2 parts ; quicklime, 1 part ; linseed oil enough to form a thick paste. Used for walls and broken stonework.

Earthenware cement.

14.  Grated cheese, 2 parts ; powdered quicklime, one part; fresh white of egg enough to form a paste. Use as soon as possible.

For fine earthenware, liquid glue may be used.

Cement for glass.

15.    Wood alcohol to render liquid a half dozen pieces of gum-mastic the size of a large pea ; in another bottle dissolve the same quantity of isinglass, which has been soaked in water and allowed to get surface dry, in 2 ounces of methylated spirit ; when the first is dissolved add two pieces of gum-galbanum or gum-ammoniac ; apply gentle heat and stir ; add the solution of isinglass, heat again and stir. Keep in a tightly stoppered bottle, and when used in boiling water.

Sealing cements.

16.  Beeswax, 1 pound; resin, 5 pounds. Stir in sufficient red ocher and Brunswick green, or lampblack, to give the desired color.

17. Black pitch, 6 pounds ; ivory-black and whiting, of each, 1 pound. Less attractive than the former. These are used for sealing up bottles, barrels, etc.