Single-birthed animals occasionally bear twins. All multiple-birthed animals are exceedingly variable in the number at a birth.

Number of eggs in brood (Harper)

Turkey ........................    12-15

Guinea-hen.......................    15-18

Ducks.........................     9-12

Geese.........................    15-18

Hen..........................    12-15

Canary.........................       3-4

Other Characteristics

Average temperature of farm animals.

Horse, 100° F. ; ox, 101° to 102.5° ; sheep and swine, 103° ; dog, 102.5° and very changeable. It is lowest about 4 a.m., and highest at 6 p.m. The liver, of all the organs, has the highest temperature, 106.2° F. Poultry 105° to 106°.

The pulse of farm animals (Harger).

The pulse is a dilatation of the elastic wall of an artery at the moment of the heart-beat. Its character is some indication of the state of health. It is felt in the horse on the lower jaw-bone ; in the ox on the jaw, the inside of the elbow and cannon, and the base of the tail; in the dog on the inside of the thigh.

Number of pulse-beats per minute : Horse, 36 to 40 ; ox, 45 to 50 ; sheep and pig, 70 to 80 ; dog, 90 to 100 ; camel, 28 to 32 ; elephant, 25 to 28. It is slower in the male than in the female. It is more rapid in the young than in the old, as for example, in the foal, 100 to 120 ; in the calf, 90 to 130. The daily work of the heart is estimated at 1,539,000 foot-pounds, or one-third of a horse-power.

Period of heat in farm animals (Mumford).

The beginning of puberty in the female is characterized by the ripening of a mature egg, and external symptoms which together are called the period of heat, or, in some wild animals, the rutting season. This period is accompanied by various manifestations. The external genitals become swollen and red, and this is accompanied by the discharge of a reddish mucus. There is frequent urination, and sometimes a swelling of the mammary glands. The female is often restless and utters loud cries.

The duration of heat varies, but normally continues in the mare two to three days, in the cow twelve to twenty-four hours, in the sow one to three days, and in the ewe two to three days. The frequency with which the heat recurs in different animals varies within rather narrow limits. The period of heat in the mare recurs rather irregularly, but most stallioners agree that the mare will come in heat nine days after delivery and each two or three weeks thereafter. The cow comes in heat forty to sixty days after delivery, if suckling the calf, and twenty to thirty days if the calf is taken away at birth. After the first appearance of heat in the cow, the period recurs with considerable regularity each three weeks thereafter. The sow invariably shows signs of heat three days after weaning the pigs, and recurs every nine to twelve days. The mare and ewe come in heat regularly during the spring and autumn months. At other seasons, the period is irregular and often entirely absent.

(All dates and periods of this kind are exceedingly variable.)

Quantity of blood in the bodies of farm animals (Harger).

In the horse, 1/15 (6.6 per cent) ; ox, 1/13 (7.7 per cent); sheep, 1/12 (8.01 per cent) ; pig, 1/22 (4.6 per cent) ; dog, 1/18 to 1/12 (5.5-9.1 per cent) (Sussdorf). An average horse has about 66 pounds, or nearly 50 pints, of blood. In bleeding horses, about one pint of blood for every hundred pounds of body weight is removed.

Temperatures for Cold Storage of Animal Products (Hygeia Refrigerating Co., Elmira, N. Y.)

Hams, pork loins, poultry, and all meats that are to be held for a long carry, should be put into the freezer at a temperature of 10° above zero or lower, and after they are thoroughly frozen they may be transferred to a temperature from 15° to 18°. Meats to be held for a short time only may be carried at 30° to 32°. Eggs 30°. Condensed milk- is carried at 32°; fresh milk at a point just above freezing, where it can be carried, of course, only a short time. Condensed milk can be successfully carried several months; cheese at 31° to 32°; dried fruit, nuts, groceries, etc., at 35°; butter from zero to 10° below zero.