The success of storage depends not alone on the control and accuracy of temperature maintained, but on control of humidity, and in some cases on pronounced circulation of air. For temperatures for fruits, see page 149.
The herd-book conserves the purity of a breed, being based upon purity of blood, any animal being eligible to registry whose sire and dam have been recorded. An Advanced Register is a herd-book within a herd-book based upon individual merit, and designed as an aid to improvement within the breed. Advanced registry is especially adapted to the improvement of the dairy breeds of cattle. The registry is made on the report of an official test as to milk yield and butter-fat, conducted by an Experiment Station.
The Advanced Registry system has had marked effect in discovering and publishing the good animals, eliminating the poor animals, and standardizing the performance. The four leading dairy breeds in America — Holstein, Jersey, Guernsey, and Ayrshire — now have well-authenticated records as a result of this system.
As illustrating the nature of the test to warrant Advanced Registry, the following set of general rules of the Holstein-Friesian Association of America is inserted: —
1. The Station representative shall be present at the last regular milking preceding the beginning of the test and shall satisfy himself that the cow is milked dry at that time. He shall note the hour at which this milking is made; and the final milking of the test, whatever its length, must be at exactly the same hour.
2. He must be present at each and every milking during the test, and satisfy himself that at the close of each milking the pail contains nothing but the milk drawn from the cow under test.
3. Under no circumstances can more cows than one undergoing test be milked at the same time. The Station representative must in every case be in position to observe the milker during the whole milking.
4. Immediately after the milk is drawn at each milking, he will take charge of the pail and contents, will weigh the same to pounds and tenths on scales provided by his State Experiment Station, and enter the exact weight of milk at once in his note-book. He will then take a correct sample of the milk, sufficient for his own tests and for the composite sample to be sent to the Station, in accordance with the following directions-:
5. As soon as the milk has been weighed it is to be thoroughly mixed by pouring it from one pail to the other, or by means of a dipper; and a pint fruit jar is to be immediately filled about two-thirds full of milk for the test samples. The Station representative takes charge of and is personally responsible for this sample. It should be kept under lock and key until tested. The test is proceeded with as soon as convenient, after the milk has cooled to ordinary room temperature.
6. Fat determinations are always made in duplicate, and the average of the two determinations recorded on the record sheet. The sample taken of any one milking is not to be thrown away until a perfectly satisfactory test of the milking has been obtained. On completion of each test, the Station representative will at once indelibly enter in his note-book the results obtained. In making entries of fat, the supervisor shall use three decimal places. If the figure in the fourth place be a 5, or greater than 5, he shall count it as one of the next higher order; but if it be less than a 5, he shall drop it.
7. If any of the milk or the test sample from a milking be accidentally lost, the missing weight of the milk or fat credited to this milking is to be obtained by taking the average of all corresponding milkings during the whole test; that is, if e.g., the evening milk is lost, or the test sample therefrom, the average of the weights of milk and of fat of all evening milkings during the test is taken as the yield of milk and fat for the milking lost. It must be stated on the report that data so obtained are estimated and not actual.