Grades Of Pork And Swine 153

Roughs. Stags. Boars. Miscellaneous: Roasting pigs, 15 to 30 lb.

Feeders.

Governments.

Pen-holders.

Dead hogs.

Roughs are hogs of all sizes that are coarse, rough, and lacking in condition - too inferior to be classed as packing hogs or as light mixed hogs. The pork from these hogs is used for the cheaper class of trade for both packing and fresh meat purposes.

Stags are hogs that at one time were boars beyond the pig stage and have been subsequently castrated. They sell with a dockage of eighty pounds. If they are of good quality and condition and do not show too much stagginess, they go in with the various grades of packing hogs. When they are coarse and staggy in appearance, they are sold in the same class with boars. The intermediary grades sell for prices ranging between these extremes, dependent on their freedom from stagginess and their quality and condition.

Boars are always sold in a class by themselves, and bring from $2 to $3 per hundredweight less than the best hogs on the market at the same time. They always sell straight, with no dockage. There is no distinction as to grades ; they simply sell as boars. The pork from these animals is used to supply the cheaper class of trade, and also for making sausage.

Roasting pigs are not generally quoted in market reports. They come to market in small numbers and only during holiday seasons, and their price varies greatly.

Feeders are hogs bought on the market and taken back to the country to be further fed, a practice which is followed only to a very limited extent.

Governments are hogs rejected by the government inspector as not sound in every respect. They are usually bought up by a local dealer and taken to one of the smaller packing houses, where they are slaughtered under the supervision of an inspector. If found to be affected so as to make their flesh unfit for human food, they are condemned, slaughtered, and tanked. The tank is a large, steam-tight receptacle, like a steam boiler, in which the lard is rendered under steam pressure. This high degree of heat destroys all disease germs with which the diseased carcass may have been affected. The product of the tank is converted into grease and fertilizer.

The commission men who sell the stock as it comes to the yards, and the speculators who handle part of it, pay nothing for their privilege of doing business in the yards. They hold their respective positions by common consent and their respective pens by keeping hogs in them. These hogs are called pen-holders, and have no influence on the market.

Dead hogs are those killed in the cars in transit. They are used for the manufacture of grease, soap, and fertilizer.