Beef, veal, mutton, and pork recognized in Chicago wholesale markets. (Hall, Illinois Station.)

Beef

The general divisions of the beef trade are (1) Carcass Beef, (2) Beef Cuts, and (3) Cured Beef Products.

Carcass Beef. — The classes are Steers, Heifers, Cows, and Bulls and Stags. They differ not only in sex, but also in the uses to which they are adapted.

The grades within these classes are prime, choice, good, medium, common, and canners. The grades are based on differences in form, thickness, finish, quality, soundness, and weight.

The terms "Native," "Western," and "Texas" beef each include various classes and grades of carcasses, and refer to general differences in form, finish, and quality.

The terms "Yearlings," "Distillers," "Butcher," and "Kosher" also include various classes and grades of beef, and merely indicate characteristic features of carcass beef used by certain branches of the trade.

"Shipping beef" refers to that sent to eastern cities and consists principally of steers, heifers and cows of medium to prime grades. Export beef consists largely of medium to prime steers.

Beef Cuts. - The " straight cuts " of beef are Loins, Ribs, Rounds, Chucks, Plates, Flanks, and Shanks.

The grades of beef cuts are No. 1, No. 2, No. 3, and Strippers. The grade of a beef cut depends upon its thickness, covering, quality, and weight.

Cured Beef Products. - These are classified as (1) Barreled, (2) Smoked, and (3) Canned Beef.

Barreled Beef is graded as Extra India Mess, Extra Plate, Regular Plate, Packet, Cotmnon Plate, Rolled Boneless, Prime Mess, Extra Mess, Rump Butt and Mess Chuck Beef, Beef Hams and Scotch Buttocks.

Smoked Beef consists of Dried Beef Hams, Dried Beef Clods, and Smoked Brisket Beef.

Canned Beef consists principally of Chipped Beef, Beef Loaf, Corned and Roast Beef.

Veal

The divisions of the veal trade are (1) Carcass Veal and (2) Veal Cuts.

Carcass Veal. — The grades are choice, good, medium, light, and heavy. The grade of a veal carcass depends upon its form, quality, finish, and weight.

The terms " Native " and " Western " veal each include several grades of calves, and refer to general differences in form, quality, and finish.

Veal Cuts. — The regular veal cuts are Saddles and Racks. They are graded as choice, good, medium, and common, according to the same factors as carcass veal.

Subdivisions of the regular cuts are made in some markets and similarly graded.

Mutton and Lamb

The divisions of the trade are (1) Carcass Mutton and Lamb and (2) Mutton and Lamb Cuts.

Carcass Mutton and Lamb. - The classes are Wethers, Ewes, Bucks, Yearlings, and Lambs.

The grades within these classes are choice, good, medium, common and culls. The grades are based on differences in form, quality, covering, and weight.

The shipping trade goes principally to cities in the eastern seaboard states, and consists largely of medium to choice lambs.

Mutton and Lamb Cuts. - The leading cuts are Saddles and Racks, together with Legs, Loins, Short Racks, Stews, and Backs. They are graded in the same manner as carcass mutton and lamb.

Pork

Hog products are described under three heads : (1) Dressed Hogs, (2) Pork Cuts, and (3) Lard.

Dressed Hogs. — The classes are Smooth, Heavy, Butcher, Packing and Bacon Hogs, Shippers, and Pigs. The classification is based on the uses to which the hogs are adapted.

Distinct grades are recognized only in the Packing and Bacon classes, the former being based on weight and the latter chiefly on quality and finish.

Pork Cuts. — The classes are Hams, Sides, Bellies, Backs, Loins, Shoulders, Butts and Plates, and Miscellaneous.

Pork cuts are quoted as fresh pork, dry-salt and bacon meats, barreled or plain-pickled pork, sweet-pickled meats, smoked meats, " English " meats, and boiled meats, respectively.

The grading of pork cuts is much more complex than that of other meats. It involves not only their quality, shape, finish, and weight, but also the styles of cutting and methods of packing used.

Lard. — The grades are Kettle-Rendered Leaf, Kettle-Rendered, Neutral, Prime Steam, Refined, and Compound Lard. The grading is based on the kinds of fat, included, method of rendering, color, flavor and grain.