To prevent mice from girdling trees in winter.

In heeling-in young trees in the fall, do not use straw or litter, in which mice can make their nests. In orchards, see that tall grass, corn-husks, or other dry materials do not gather about the trees in fall. If danger from mice is apprehended, tramp the first snow firmly about the trees, in order to compact the grass and litter so that mice cannot find shelter.

Where the paper-birch grows, it is a good plan to place sections of birch-bark from limbs or small trunks about the base of the tree.

These sections roll tightly about the tree, and yet expand so readily with the growth of the tree that they may be allowed to remain, although it is advisable to remove them each spring, so that they will not become a harboring-place for insects. Tie thin strips of wood, as laths or shingles, about the tree. Common window-screen placed about the tree is effective and safe. Remove in spring, as it is likely to attract borers. Tarred paper is sometimes advised to keep away mice and borers, but it is very likely to kill the bark, especially on young trees, if tied on, or if left on in warm weather.

Washes to protect trees from mice.

Wash the trees with some persistent substance in which is placed paris green. Maynard finds the following substances useful for holding the poison: portland cement of the consistency of common paint; Portland cement 10 parts and gas-tar 1 part; portland cement 10 parts and asphaltum 1 part; portland cement 10 parts and Morrill's tree-ink 1 part.

Lime-wash, to which is added a little sulfur, tobacco-decoction, and soapsuds.

Carbonate of baryta for rats and mice.

Sugar and oatmeal or wheat flour, of each 6 ounces; carbonate of baryta, 1/4 pound; oil of anise-seed, enough to give the mixture a pretty strong odor.

This remedy is frequently made simply of oatmeal and barium-carbonate, 1 part poison to 8 of oatmeal, the combined materials being made into a stiff dough by the use of water. This has the advantage of working so slowly that the victims generally leave the premises in search of water.

Tartar emetic for rats and mice.

Tartar emetic, 1 part; oatmeal or flour, 4 parts; beef or mutton suet enough to make all into a paste.

Strychnine solution for mice.

Mice have been successfully poisoned by the use of wheat soaked in strychnine solution. (See ground squirrel remedies, p. 241.)

Camphor for rats and mice.

Mix a few pieces of camphor with vegetable seeds, to repel vermin.

French paste for rats and mice.

Oatmeal or wheat flour, 3 pounds; powdered indigo, 1/2 ounce; finely powdered white arsenic, 4 ounces; oil of anise-seed, 1/2 dram. Mix, and add of melted beef suet or mutton tallow 21/2 pounds, and work the whole up into a paste.

Commercial forms of phosphorus are popular as exterminators of vermin.

To protect seed-corn from burrowing animals (chiefly field mice).

Drop poisoned bait into small holes made into runways, then cover the holes. Corn or wheat treated as for ground-squirrels is effective. Or the grain may be moistened with water containing a little gum arabic, and then dusted with ordinary white arsenic. The grain may be allowed to dry before using. To prepare a bait that will work in a planter, it is recommended to dissolve one-eighth of an ounce of strychnia sulfate in two quarts of hot water, preferably rain water. Soak the corn in this for forty-eight hours, and then spread it out and dry thoroughly. A teaspoonful of coal-tar to a peck of dampened grain seems to be effectual protection.