Red: No. 3, closely followed by No. 2, are successful preservatives for the fruit.
White : Nos. 2 and 3 are almost equally satisfactory.
No. 5 ; this fluid has given very good results — incomparably better than any of the other solutions under investigation.
Black : No. 1 is satisfactory and excellent.
Red : No. 3 is probably the best.
No. 1 (with peroxide of hydrogen) and No. 2 have been used successfully.
White : (green) No. 2 and No. 3. Neither of these has proven satisfactory, but No. 2 seems to be the better.
Peas in Pod.
No. 5 ; by far the best fluid.
No. 3 has been used with some success for short periods.
Our experience in preserving this fruit has been very limited, but fluid No. 2 has been used with fair success.
Red and purple : A very difficult fruit to preserve in its natural form and color.
No. 6. This is the best of the many fluids tried ; by an occasional change of solution, this preservative gives fairly good results.
White : No. 2.
No. 1 ; this fluid, both with and without peroxide, will preserve the fruit with much of its natural color. No other fluid among those under experiment has proven at all satisfactory for this fruit.
Tomatoes. No. 2 has given fairly satisfactory results.
Preserving fruits and vegetables for exhibition (A California method).
Glycerine....................2 to 24 oz.
Sulfurous acid..................1 to 3 oz.
Rock salt......................1 oz.
The above amounts are for one gallon of water. The amount of glycerine is governed by the specific gravity of the juice of the subject, it being requisite to have the density of the fluid the same as that of the juice. The amount of sulfurous acid is governed by the nature of the subject, fruits of delicate tint being given the minimum amount, while most vegetables will take the maximum.
It is absolutely essential for success to have pure sulfurous acid, and this is best obtained by treating charcoal with sulfuric acid and running the gas directly into the water in the preserving jar. The sulfurous acid must be generated in a strong vessel, as the chemical action is violent.
No particular pains are taken to have the fruit clean at the time it is placed in the jars. After the solution is on it, it must be set away in a dark, cool place, and carefully examined at intervals of a few days.
If any cloudiness or discoloration appears, the liquid must be promptly removed and replaced by fresh. This is best done by running in clear water from a hose until all the preserving fluid is displaced, and then recharging the water in accordance with the formula. This clearing will also remove all dirt and sediment. After the fruit has remained in a dark place for several months without change, the fluid should be removed and substituted by fresh, in which there is only one ounce of sulfurous acid to the gallon. This latter strength is known as the " show liquid."
Tree Labels may be made of various kinds of material. The commonest and cheapest label is made of clean white pine, primed with thin white lead. These can be purchased of dealers in nurserymen's supplies. The ordinary nursery tree label is 31/2 inches long.
The Cornell tree label is made from the " package label " used by nurserymen. It is a pine notched tally 6 inches long and 11/4 inches wide. (Cost, painted, about $1.30 to $1.50 per thousand.) These are wired with heavy stiff wire, not less than eighteen inches long, so that the loop is five or six inches across. The labels are hung on one of the lower limbs of the tree, where they are very conspicuous. The ends of the wire are hooked together around the limb by means of pincers, and, being stiff, it is not readily removed by careless or mischievous persons. The name is written firmly with a very soft black lead-pencil, and when the label is hung upon the tree, it is dipped in thin white lead, which fixes the writings and preserves it almost indefinitely ; or the name may be written firmly into a fresh white lead.
Labels made of small strips of common zinc are often used, the name being written on the metal with a lead-pencil. The label is wound about a limb, and it expands as the part grows. The label is so inconspicuous and so easily removed that it is unsatisfactory.
Thick tallies of lead, with the name stamped in with dies, are good.
Thin metal labels that hang on a wire are often broken or torn out at the eyelet by the wind.
Stake Labels, made of pine or other soft clear wood, are most satisfactory for garden use, unless, perhaps, in botanic gardens, or other permanent exhibition grounds where a more conspicuous and ornamental label is wanted. The label should be primed with white lead, after which it takes a permanent mark from a medium soft lead-pencil.
A good label for grounds which are cultivated by horses, and which are therefore likely to be broken by the whiffetrees, is a pine stake 2 feet long, 31/2 inches wide, and 11/2 inches thick, sawed to a taper at the lower end. Give them two coats of thin white lead, taking care not to pile them on their faces whilst drying. Make the record with a soft large lead-pencil. When the writing wears off, or the label is wanted for other uses, plane a shaving off the face, paint again, and it is as good as new.
To preserve Wooden Labels. — Thoroughly soak the pieces of wood in a strong solution of copperas (sulfate of iron) ; then lay them, after they are dry, in lime-water. This causes the formation of sulfate of lime, a very insoluble salt, in the wood.
Black Ink for Zinc Labels. — Verdigris, 1 ounce; sal ammoniac, 1 ounce ; lampblack, 1/2 ounce ; rain-water, 11/2 pint. Mix in an earthenware mortar or jar and put up in small bottles. To be shaken before use and used with a clean quill pen on bright zinc.