"Seconds" include mixed eggs both of size and color, but they must be necessarily fresh. This grade would take ordinary farmers' fresh eggs.

All preserved and cold storage eggs are debarred by the score of 80 per cent from every class except "thirds."

The standard weight for each grade shall be the highest weight mentioned for that grade.

Students' score-card for a dozen eggs


Value Section

1st Doz.

2d Doz.

3d Doz.

4th Doz.

5th Doz.

6th Doz.









Condition of shell



Appearance at candling .



Yolk, quality of ...



White, quality of



Cut for disqualified eggs .


Cut for under-standard


Total cuts ....


Final score ....


Explanation of score-card:

Shape. — The shape should be uniformly oval throughout the dozen.

Color. — The color should be uniform over the entire shell and throughout the dozen. The standard should be a clear, pure white for white eggs and a rich, dark brown for brown eggs.

Condition of shell. — The shell should be spotlessly clean and un-smeared or glossy by washing. It should be of uniformly firm condition throughout, not twisted or folded.

Appearance at candling. — The contents should be clear and transparent, the yolk being scarcely perceptible. The air space should be very small. A large air space indicates greater age of the egg, except in water glass eggs.

An egg must necessarily be broken for scoring the yolk and white. Yolk. — The yolk should be a rich golden in color, and should keep its shape when opened into a saucer. It should show no spots other than the germinal disc, and should be of a sweet, agreeable odor. 2b

White. — The white or albumen of the egg should be fresh, sweet, clear, and viscous. The two layers of albumen should be of a distinctly different consistency, — the one very viscous, the other rather watery.

Scale of cuts:

Shape (one point for each egg). — Cut to the limit in proportion to the defect and then disqualify.

Color (one point for each egg). — Cut to the limit in proportion to the defect and then disqualify.

Condition of shell (one point for each egg). — One-half point when wrinkled severely ; one-half to two points when three or four or more are glossy ; one-half point for each weak shell ; one-half to one point for each soiled egg.

Candling. — Cut one-half point for each egg showing distinctly cloudy appearance.

Cut one point for each egg having unmistakable blood spots.

Cut one-quarter to one-half point for each egg showing large air space.

Quality of yolk. — Five points for each spot on yolk other than the germ discs. Cut as high as ten points when odor is disagreeable. Cut as high as ten points when yolk flattens and breaks. Cut as high as five points on a pale color.

Quality of white. — Cut as high as fifteen points when the two albumens approach the same consistency. Cut as high as five points when albumen will not hold up the yolk.

Cut one-half point for each one-half ounce in weight under the standard weight of the grade for the dozen. Cut eight points for each disqualified egg.

Rules for Machine Incubation (Finch)

Never put the eggs in the machine until the temperature is properly regulated.

Temperature. —After the eggs have been put in the machine, the temperature will drop and remain low for some time, gradually increasing, often taking from twelve to fourteen hours to reach the desired degree. Do not try to run the heat up too quickly. It is better that the temperature should be increased gradually.

After the correct temperature is reached, the incubator should run with only slight variations. Although it is best to maintain an even temperature, it is not always possible to do so, and a variation of one-half degree, or more, from time to time, will not result seriously if the average temperature is correct. A high temperature should be avoided, especially at the beginning of incubation.

The temperature should be read through the glass door. The door should be opened as little as possible.

Temperature, first week. - The position of the thermometer should always be considered in determining the proper temperature to maintain. If the thermometer hangs above the trays, as it does in some machines, thereby registering the air temperature and not the temperature of the eggs, the actual temperature of the eggs would be from one to one and a half degrees lower the first week than the registered temperature. To give the eggs the proper amount of heat the first week, where hanging thermometers are used, it is necessary to keep the temperature at 1021/2° or 103°; whereas with contact thermometers, the temperature should be 102°. Contact thermometers should always be placed between two fertile eggs.