Whereas during the period described above, aromatic waters were used for medicinal purposes in Europe and more particularly in Germany, in Asia fragrant drugs of vegetable and animal origin, also the aromatic waters and aromatized fatty oils prepared from them were used extensively in religious ceremonies and in perfumery. Interesting accounts concerning these perfumes are found in the "Ain-i-Akbari", the annals of the emperor Akbar (1542 - 1605) written in the Persian language by his historian Abul Fazl toward the close of the 16. century.1)

Lignaloes, which formerly played an important role, was comminuted and buried, thus causing the inferior portion to decay whereas the portion richer in resin, the pure lignaloes, remained. It was used for a variety of purposes: as a medicine, in perfumery and fumigation, as insecticide, etc. The oil of lignaloes, the Chuwah, is distilled by covering the comminuted wood with water in an earthenware flask, the neck of which is connected with a dish containing water. With the aid of a moderate fire the oil is driven over into the receiver. In order to remove the smoky odor, the oil is washed with water, the oftener the better. Concerning the history of rose oil, which was introduced into India by way of Persia, the following statement is made. In the imperial garden the bride of the emperor Jehanger observed a film on the surface of the canals which were supplied with rose water. This film she had collected and the oil thus obtained she named after her husband Atr-i-Jehangiri. Other fragrant waters, e. g. those prepared from orange and jasmine flowers, were known by the collective name of Araq. The fragrant grasses Andropogon Schoenanthus, A. muricatus and A. laniger are met with under the names Rus and Abir Izkhir. Of resins storax, benzoes, frankincense and labdanum are mentioned as being known. The last mentioned is described correctly as a substance obtained from Cistus, "a Cyprian and Chiotic tree". It is also obtained from the beards of goats who have eaten Cistus leaves. This second quality is regarded as the better.

Of camphor it is said that it was first found in a country not far from Ceylon. A substitute perfumed with camphor was also known. By means of it "people without a conscience tried to enrich themselves at the expense of others." Borneo camphor was also highly prized.

1) David Hooper, The perfumes of the Moguls. Calcutta Review, October 1904. - Report of Schimmel & Co., October 1905, 83.

Of minor importance are perfumes obtained outside of India, such as orris root, wormseed and patchouli leaves.

Of animal perfumes ambra, civet and musk are mentioned.

During the period under consideration all endeavors were directed toward the artificial preparation of gold. As a result there were more adepts during the 17. century than during the two previous centuries. Many courts, suffering from want of money, became the fruitful fields cultivated by the adepts of the spagyric art. Of these, only very few attained practical results of any kind, as did, e.g., the alchemist Baettger (born 1685, died 1719) who discovered the art of making porcelain. Chemically this poverty stricken century accomplished but little. Princes, scholars, physicians, indeed members of all classes of educated society were open or secret adherents and believers in the transmutation of the metals.

These endeavors which forced into the background all true chemical research, appear likewise to have caused a prolonged stagnation in the art of distillation. During the 17. century it was practiced only by a few experimenters far away from the turmoil of war that raged on German soil. Among these should be mentioned in particular joh. Baptista van Helmont in Brussels (born 1577, died 1644), Johann Rudolf Glauber in Amsterdam (born 1604, died 1668), Nicolas Lemery in Paris (born 1645, died 1715), and Wilhelm Homberg in Paris (born 1652, died 1715).

During this period the practice was introduced of adding salts, such as common salt, potash, alum, and tartar to the water in the still. The object sought was to increase the gravity of the water so that the parts of plants might not so readily adhere to the bottom of the still and become empyreumatic. Presumably it was also observed in certain instances that an increased yield of oil resulted. The addition of hydrochloric acid, however, as recommended by Glauber must be characterized as going astray.

Even with these assumed improvements, the art of distillation at the close of the 17. century still rested on the basis of empirical experimentation. Neither was it advanced by the phlogistic theory, proposed toward the end of the century by ). J. Becher (born 1635, died 1681) and more firmly established by G. E. Stahl (born 1660, died 1734), which theory permeated all chemical speculation for more than a century. Even if this theory, that characterized the last transition period of theoretical chemistry, was ingenious and productive, and prepared the way for the chemical reformation that occurred toward the close of the 18. century, it failed utterly to throw light on the composition of the volatile oils. Moreover the elemental components of air and the constituents of water, also the elements of which minerals and rocks are composed were known only in part up to the middle of the 18. century.

Renewed progress, however, in the manufacture and use of volatile oils is to be recorded during the eighteenth century. The technique of distillation was improved in the laboratories of the apothecary shops where the oils were largely distilled and a better product was prepared. The distilled oils were not only prepared on a larger scale and of better quality, but they found extended application not only in medicine, but also in the arts and in the household. The number of oils mentioned in municipal price ordinances and other literature up to 1500 had been only thirteen; in 1540 the number had increased to thirty-four and in 1589 to one hundred and eight oils. The Dispensatorium Nor/cum of Cordus mentions only three oils in 1543; the edition of 1552 mentions five; that of 1563 six; and that of 1589 fifty-six distilled oils. In 1708 one hundred and twenty oils are mentioned in the price ordinances of that time.