In India, gurjun balsam has been in use for a long time. The attention of Europeans was first directed to gurjun balsam by Franklin1) in 1811 and by Wm. Ainslie2) in 1813. Its source and method of preparation, however, were first described by Wm. Roxburgh3) in 1827.

1) Esekiel, 27:17. - Herodoti Historiarum libri. Lib. IV, 177. - Theo-phrasti Historia plantarum, Lib. IX, cap. 1 and 4. - Plinii Naturalis historiae libri. Lib. XII, cap. 36. Editio Littre, vol.1, p. 487. - Plutarchii Moralia, lsis et Osiris. Editio Parthey. 1850. p. 143 and 276. - Avicennae Libri in re medica omnes. Venetiis. 1546. Lib. XI, cap. 462. - Palladii De re rustica. Editio Nisard. 1877. p. 626.

2) W. Heyd, Geschichte des Levantehandels im Mittelalter. 1879. Vol. 2, p. 617.

3) Geographie d'Edrisi, traduite par Amedee Jaubert. 1836. Vol. 2, p. 27. - Meyer, Geschichte der Botanik. 1856. Vol. 3, p. 299.

4) Guerard, Polyptique de /'abbe" Irminon. Paris 1844. Vol.2, p. 336. - Pfeiffer, Zwei deutsche Arzneibiicher aus dem 12. und 13. Jahrhundert. In Sitzungsberichte der kaiserl. Akademie der Wissensch. zu Wien. 42 (1863), 110-162. (Haeser, Geschichte der Medizin. 1875. Vol. 3, p. 663.)

5) Saladini Compendium aromatariorum. Venetii 1488. Index.

6) Fluckiger, Pharmakognosie. 1891. p. 119.

7) Gualtherus Ryff, New gross Destillirbuch. 1545. Fol. 181.

8) Euonymi Philiatri Ein kostlicher theurer Schatz. 1555. p. 237.

Its similar action to copaiba balsam was made known in India by the physician O'Shaughnessy4) as early as 1812. It acquired a considerable reputation in India as a remedy against lepra, later also in England in dermatological5) practice.