The ladanum resin, used since antiquity6) as incense and embalming agent, is an exudation of the bush-like plants Cistus creticus, L, C. ladaniferus, L. and other species of the N. O. Cistaceae indigenous to Asia Minor, Crete, Cyprus and a few other islands off the coast of Asia Minor. Up to the beginning of the 19. century it was an officinal drug, valued for its pleasant odor. It is often mentioned in literature7) along with the ancient aromatics, storax, myrrh and frankincense. Not infrequently, especially in the translations of the Bible, it has been confounded with galbanum.8) Lately it has gone almost completely out of use.

Ladanum oil, distilled at first with wine or spirits of wine (aqua vitae), was already known to Walter Ryff,9) Conrad Gesner,10)

1) Franklin, Tracts on the dominions of Ava. London 1811. p. 26.

2) Wm. Ainslie, Materia medica of Hindoostan. Madras 1813. p. 186. •

3) Roxburgh, Plants of the coast of Coromandel. 1828. Vol. 3, p. 10 and plate 113.

4) Bengal Dispensatory, Calcutta. 1842. p. 22.

5) Pharmaceutical Journ. III. 5 (1875), 729.

6) Herodoti Historiarum libri novem. Lib. Ill, 107, 112.

7) Plinii Naturalis historian libri. Lib. XII, cap. 37 and 44. - Dioscoridis De materia medica libri quinque. Lib. I, cap. 23. Edit. Kuhn-Sprengel 1829. p. 120. - Douet d'Arcq, Comptes de I'Argenterie des wis de France. 1851, p. 19. - Heyd, Geschichte des Levantehandels im Mittelalter. 1879. vol. 2, p. 614. - Schrader, Monatsberichte der Berliner Akademie der Wissen-schaften, 1881, 413. - Thiselton Dyer, Pharmaceutical Journ. III. 15 (1884), 301 and 16 (1885), 386 and 779.

8) W. Smith, Dictionary of the Bible. London. Vol. 2 (1863), p. 450. - Rosenmuller, Handbuch der biblischen Altertumskunde. Vol.4 (1830), p. 156.

9) Gualtheri Ryff, New gross Destillirbuch. 1545. fol. 179. 10) Euonymi Philiatri Ein kostlicher theurer Schatz. 1555. p. 237.

Hieronymus Rubeus,1) and to Porta.2) It was taken up in medical books, first in the Dispensatorium Nor/cum of the year 1589 and in the Pharmacopcea Augustana of the year 1613.