1) Liber de arte destillandi. Vol. I, vol. 18 and 19. Brunschwig was well acquainted with the preparation of spirit of wine, not only by the distillation of wine, but also by that of fermented honey (vol. II, liber 1, cap. 14 and 28), of fermented fruit juices (vol. II, cap. 18), also by the fermentation and distillation of herbs, roots and flowers (vol. II, cap. 19).

2) Ibidem. Vol. II, cap. 26.

3) Philippi Ulstadii Coe/um Philosophorum, seu liber de secretis naturae tractatus, id est, quomodo ex rebus omnibus Quinta essentia paretur. Argentorati 1543 u. 1528 - Augustas Treboc. 1530 - Lugduni 1540 u. 1553 - Parisii 1543 - Francofurti 1600.

1) H. Gualtherus Ryff, Neu gross Destillirbuch wohl gegrundeter kunst-licher Destination. Francofurti 1556. (See p. 46.)

2) Petri Andreae Matthioli Medici Cassarii et Fernandi Archiducis Austriae Opera quae extant omnia: hoc est Commentarii in sex libris Pedacei Dioscoridis Anazarbei de materia medica. Post diversarum editionum colla-tionem infinitis locis aucti: De ratione destillandi aquas ex omnibus plantis; et quomodo genuini odores in ipsis aquis conservari possint. Veneti 1544 - Basiliae 1565.

3) Remaclii Fuchsii Historia omnium aquarum, quae in commune hodie practicantium sunt usu, vires et recta destillandi ratio. Veneti 1542 - Parisii l542.

4) Valerii Cordi Simesusii Annotationes in Pedacei Dioscoridis Anazar-bei de materia medica libros quinque, longe aliae quam ante hac sunt emulgatae. Ejusdem historiae stirpium libri quatuor, et de artificiosis extraction/bus fiber. Tiguri 1540.

After the death of Cordus this work was published with additions (Horti Germaniae) and comments by Conrad Gesner in Zuerich. Several editions appeared in 1557, 1561 and 1583.

5) Thesaurus Euonymi Philiatri de remediis secretis; liber physicus, medicus et partim etiam chymicus et oeconomicus in vinorum diversi sapores apparatur, medici's et pharmacopolis omnibus praecipue necessarius. Tiguri 1552. Liber I. De destillatione ejusque differentiis in genere. Auctor est Conradus Gesnerus. Tiguri.

The German edition bears the following title: Ein kostlicher Schatz Euonymi Philiatri darinn enthalten sind vie/ heimlicher guter stuck der artzney, verteutscht durch Joh. Rud. Landenberger. Zurich 1555.

6) Adami Loniceri, Der Arzney Doctor und weiland Ordinarii Primarii Physici zu Francfurt am Meyn, Krauterbuch und kiinstliche Conterfeyungen der Baumen, Stauden, Hecken, Krautern, Getrayde, Gewiirzen und nutzlichen Kunst zu destilliren.....- Auf das allerfleissigste iibersehen, corrigirt und verbessert durch Petrum Uffenbachium, Ordin. Physicus in Francfurt am Meyn. Ulm, anno dei 1551, 1573 und 1589.

7) Joh. Baptistae Portae Neapolitan!', Magiae Naturalis libri viginti, in quibus scientiarum naturalium divitiae et deliciae demonstrantur. Jam de novo, ab omnibus mendis repurgati, in lucem prodierunt. Liber decimus: Destillat, destillata ad fastigia virium sustollit. Ravennae 1565 - Ant-werpia? 1567 - Neapoli 1589 - Hanoviae 1619.

Next to Brunschwig' s treatise on distillation, those of Ulstad and Ryff are given priority. Not only were they frequently quoted by the later authors but the illustrations were invariably copied from the two volumes of Brunschwig and the next oldest treatise by Ulstad. Possibly Brunschwig and Ulstad obtained their illustrative material from Arabian sources.

About twenty-five years after the appearance of Brunschwig's treatise, the above mentioned smaller treatise on distillation by the Nuernberg physician Philipp Ulstad was used almost equally extensively.4)

It was published in Strassburg in 1526 and was shortly thereafter reprinted in Paris, Leyden, Frankfurt and elsewhere.

In 57 chapters the book supplies direction for the preparation of the supposed Quinta essentia by means of curious methods of circulation and distillation, which will be found mentioned in a subsequent chapter. The detailed explanations of the nature of the "fifth being" are merely a circumscription of the conventional ideas about distillation and the products of distillation already mentioned in connection with Brunschwig (p. 41). In general, the aim of all of the cumbersome processes described by Ulstad, is the separation of the spirit of all substances from their earthy body. This quinta essentia in turn practically resolves itself either into a spirit of wine, more or less strong and aromatised by means of plant or animal products, or into a spirituous solution of metallic acetates (aurum potabile). All plant products, even apples, pears, cherries etc. further human blood, urine and other "subtle animal products" are subjected to cumbersome "digestion" and "circulation, i. e. to prolonged fermentation and putrefaction. Finally, "the spirit" is distilled and repeatedly rectified.

1) Hieronymi Rubei Ravennatis De destillatione liber, in quo stilla-titiorum /iquorum, qui ad medicinam faciuntur, methodus ac vires explicantur. Ravennae 1580 and 1582, Basiliae 1581 and 1585.

2) C. C. Cunrathii Medulla destillatoria et medica, oder Bericht, wie man den Spiritus vini zur Exultation bringen soil. Leipzig 1549.

3) Jacobi Bessonii De absoluta ratione extrahendi aquas et olea ex medicamentis simplicibus a quodam empirico accepta et a Bessonio Iocuple-tata, experimentis confirmata. Tiguri 1559. - A French edition appeared in Paris 1573.

4) Philippi Ulstadii, patris nobilis Coelum Philosophorum seu liber de secretis naturae, id est: quomodo non solum e vino, sed etiam ex omnibus metal/is, fructibus, radicibus, herbis etc. Quinta essentia, sive aqua vitae, ad conservationem humani corporis educi debeat. Argentor. 1526 and 1528 - Lugduni 1540 and 1553 - Parisii 1543 - August. Treboc. 1553 - Francofurti 1600.

The German edition bears the following title: Dess Edlen und Hoch-erfahrenen Herrn Philippi Ulstadii von Nurmberg Buchlein von Heimlig-keiten der Natur, jetzund verdeutischt. Frankfurt am Mayn 1551.