These "Annotationes" of Cordus are of special importance in the history of volatile oils, partly on account of the reputation of the author, partly because of his knowledge of the subject and also because they appeared in a century that was so productive of literature. Whereas Brunschwig's book reveals a retrogression in the technique of distillation as compared with the Arabian period, Ulstad, Ryff, Matthiolus, Lonicer and others advanced the art during the period of distilled waters and aquae vitae in several ways: they not only made known many of the older pieces of apparatus that had been forgotten, but they also improved them and invented new ones.

The ground thus prepared was further cultivated by Cordus and Gesner. Owing to the short life time of the former, it was the latter who continued their common labors and realized better results.

In the chapter de destillatione oleorum (fol. 226) of the Liber de artificiosis extractionibus of his Annotationes, Cordus discusses the nature of the plant extracts obtained by expression and distillation. Concerning the oily plant constituents, Cordus distinguishes between the viscid, fatty oils (Oleum crassum, viscosum, terrestre) obtained by expression, e. g. of seeds, and those of a spirituous nature (aerea) which can be separated from the "terrestrial" substances by distillation. As illustrations of the first class, he mentions a number of the common fatty oils, as illustrations of the second class the oils of carpobalsam,1) cardamom, cubeb, pepper, cloves, cinnamon, mace, nutmeg, lignaloes and those of some of the common umbelliferous fruits, such as anise, fennel, caraway, cumin, angelica, Ligustrum, Libanotus, Pastinaca, Apium, Petroselinum, Pimpinella and Anethum.

In his description of the properties of volatile oils, Cordus makes mention of the remarkable property of the oils of anise and fennel to congeal to a butyraceous or spermaceti-like mass; also of the property of the oils of cinnamon and cloves to sink under water.

1) Carpobalsamum is the name applied to the fruits of Balsamea meccanensis, Gleditsch (Balsamodendron Opobalsamum, Kunth), which were formerly used medicinally.

The method of distillation of volatile oils has been carefully described by Cordus, (fol. 229)1) the description being accompanied by a cut of a glass still, consisting of body and helmet, constructed by himself.

Of still greater value than the Annolationes of Cordus is the Thesaurus Euonymi Philiatri of Conrad Gesner, the Latin edition of which was possibly published as early as 1550:

"De remediis secretis. Liber physicus, medicus et partim etiam chymicus et ceconomicus in vinorum diversi saporis apparatu, medicis et pharmacopolis omnibus praecipue necessarius. Quern praeter base qua antea prelo commissa fuere, quam piurimis fornacum figuris et auximus et illustravimus." Tiguri 1552 - Lugduni 1557-1566 - Francof. 1578.

As early as 1555 a German edition made its appearance which bears the following title:

1) "Eliciuntur haec olea per destiliationem in arena, ita ut tusa aro-mata aut semina injiciantur in cucurbitam vitream luto intectam optime, una autem vice ad unc. iii injiciantur, et sint trita secundum capacitatem cubur-b/'tas, infundatur deinde ad vi lib. aquae clarissimae, ac misceto diligenter. Pone deinde cucurbitam in cape/lam aptam fornaci et arena imple, et non attingat fundum, sed intersit arena. Cucurbitae impone alembicum vitreum, cujus rostrum desinat in stanneam vel ferream fistulam (stanno forte ad-den turn) intus et foris illitam; ea fistula transeat in obliquum per vas quod habet in se aquam frigidam, ut inter destillandum egrediens cum oleo liquorum refrigeretur, claude juncturas accurate, madefacto papyro vel linteo et suppone exceptorium. Postea accende ignem lentum et vide ne nimium surgat et ebulliat in alembicum, quod in cucurbita continetur. Semina enim quaedam ut anisum propter raritatem substantias suae, simulque viscosum largiter ebulliunt, ideo non statim alembicum imponere debemus, sed poste-aquam bullas excitari videris et vaporem sursum ferri. Quod cum fiet depone alembicum et immisso bacillo agita, ita resolvetur in vaporem spuma, quae postea, mediocri igne moderari, compesci et excitari potest. Quo facto impone rursus alembicum, et circumlutatio satis, ac destillari sine cessa-tione, donee conjeceris nullum amplius intus contineri oleum: quod visu et gustu statim percipies: nam cum gustu destillantes guttae non amplius resipient injecti aromatis saporem, desistendum est ne aroma fundo cucur-b/'tas inhasreat et exuratur. Deinde segrega contentum in destillata aqua oleum optimum, quo potes artificio. Porro notandum est, quaedam ex his oleis aquae innatare, quaedam fundum petere." (De artificiosis extraction/bus, vol. 2, fol. 226.)

"Ein kostlicher theurer Schatz des Euonymus Philiatrus, darinnen be-halten sind vil heymlicher gutter stuck der arzney, furnemmlich aber die art und eygenschafften der gebrannten wasseren und Olen, wie man die-selbigen bereiten solle: desgleychen yeder wasseren und 6len art und eygen-schafft, nutz und brauch. Item alles mit schonen lieblichen figurlinen an-gezeigt unnd Item wie man mancherley weyn bereiten solle, auch den abgestandenen durch hilff der gebrannten wasseren, gewiitzen unnd anderley materi widerumb helffen m6ge fur die augen gestellt, ganz lustig, nutzlich, und giit alien Alchemisten, haushalten: inbesonders den Balbiererern, Apothekern und alien liebhaberen der Arztney. - Erstlich in Latin beschrieben durch Euonymum Philiatrum, unn newlich verteutscht durch Johannem Rudolphum Landenberger zu Zurich: vormals in Teutsche sprach niemals gesahen. Getruckt in Zurich bei Andrea und Jacobo den Gessneren gebriider im jar als man zalt von Christi unseres Hey lands geburt I555."1)

Later there appeared a second part also written by Gesner, but the original Latin text of which was not published until after his death, which occurred in 1565, by Caspar Wolf. A German translation by Jacob Nueschler was published in 1583, likewise in Zuerich, under the following title: