Costus root from Saussurea Lappa, Clarke, was known to the Greeks as xooTog. During antiquity it was used as a spice, also in the preparation of a fragrant oil, for purposes of anointmerit,1) similar to nard oil. It was also highly esteemed as remedy. Dioscorides2) distinguishes between the white Arabian or Indian, and the black Syrian costus. Garcia8) mentions that costus was used in Asia Minor, Syria, Arabia and Persia, but that it grows only in India. Costus root should not be confounded with Costus dulcis, a synonym for the bark of canella alba.

1) Dioscoridis De materia medica libri quinque. Editio Kuhn-Sprengel. 1829. Vol.1, p. 367.

2) Walafridi Strabi Hortulus. De viribus herbarum. Editio Choulant. 1832. p. 147.

3) Hildegardis Abbatissae Subtilitatum diversarum naturarum creatu-rarum libri novem. Editio Migne, Patrologiae cursus completes. 1855. p. 1172.

4) Conradi Gesneri De Hortus Germaniae liber recens. 1561. Fol. 243.

5) Hieronymus Brunschwig, Liber de arte destillandi. De simplicibus. 1500, fol. 112. - Brunschwig distinguished between the following species, viz., Absynthium ponticum, Absynthium cretensis, Absynthium marinum, used in the distillation of wormwood water .- See also Murray's Apparatus Medi-caminum Gottingias 1766. Vol. 1, p. 118.

6) Portae De destillatione libri IX. Romas 1608. p. 79. 7) Friedr. Hoffmannii Observationum physico-chemicarum selectiorum libri. Halae 1722. Lib. III. Observ. I, p. 9 and 355.

8) Memoires de l'Acad6mie des sciences de Paris. 1721.

9) Crell's Chem. Annalen 1784, 206.

10) Gottling's Almanach fur Scheidekunstler und Apotheker 1786, 101. 11) Trommsdorff's Journ. der Pharm. 5, II. (1798), 202.

1) p. 195. - W. Heyd, Geschichte des Levantehandels im Mittelalter. 1879. Vol. 1, p. 90; and Vol. 2, p. 580. - Dymock, Materia medica of Western India. 1885. p. 449.

2) Dioscoridis De materia medica libri quinque. Editio Kuhn-Sprengel. 1829. Vol. 1, pp. 15 and 29.

3) R. Sigismund, Die Aromata. Leipzig 1884. p. 34.