Oil of orange flowers was known as early as the sixteenth century. Its distillation was described for the first time by Porta.1) About a century later, in the year 1680, it appears to have been made the fashionable perfume by the Duchess Flavio Orsini, Princess of Neroli, hence the name of essence of neroli.2) On account of its delicate pleasant odor, the oil has been able to hold its reputation as one of the finest flower perfumes. This is also true of the distilled orange flower water, or Aqua naphae,3) which is used extensively for the aromatizing of food, confections and beverages, also for toilet purposes. The distillation of orange flower oil was described by Benatius4) in 1806. The oil was investigated in 1825 by Bonastre5) and in 1828 by Boullay.6)