2) Limones, Citri et alia poma citrina . . . acidi seu pontici saporis quae poma orenges ab indigenis nuncupantur. Bongars, Gesta Dei per Francos. Hanoviae 1611, fol. 1099.

3) For the etymology of the name orange see De Candolle, Origin of the cultivated plants. 1885. p. 184. - W. Roxburgh, Flora Indica. Vol. 2 (1839), p. 392.

4) Cecchetti, Archivio Veneto. Vol. 30 (1885), p. 63.

5) Gallesio, Trait6 du Citrus. Paris 1811, pp. 89, 103 and 321.

6) Kunstmann, D. Hieronymus Miinzers Bericht uber die Entdeckung der Guinea. Abhandlungen der histor. Klasse der bayerischen Akademie. 1855, p. 362.

7) Le Comte, Nouveaux memoires sur l'e'tat de la Chine. 2. Edition. Paris 1679. Tom. 1, p. 173. - Ferrari Hesperides seu de malorum aureorum cultura et usu. Romae 1646, p. 425. - E. Bretschneider, History of European botanical discoveries in China. London 1898, Vol. 1, p. 6.

8) Libro di Odoardo Barbosa, in Ramusios Del/e navigation/' et viaggi. Venetia 1554, fol. 347 b. - Gotze, Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Orangengewachse. Hamburg 1874, p. 24.

") Conrad Gesner, De hortis Germaniae liber recens. Argentorati 1561. Lib. III.

Lemon juice, which is again being used for medicinal purposes in recent times, was esteemed as such by Roman physicians. Alexander Trallianus1) prescribed it during the middle of the 6. century. Lemon syrup was introduced as medicament by the Arabian physician Mesue through his Ant/dotarium.'2) The method for its preparation was included in his Dispensatorium Nor/cum of 1543 by Valerius Cordus.3)

The oil which is secreted in the cell tissues of the outer fruit rind of the agrumen fruits flows out when these oil cells are ruptured by pressure or friction. It is in this way that the oil is actually obtained. With the introduction and utilization of the agrumen trees, this oil must have been known at an early period, without, however, finding any application.

The earliest statements concerning distilled lemon and orange oils were made by Conrad Gesner4) in 1555. Jaques Besson5) followed in 1571, and Porta8) in 1589. The latter described the preparation of the two oils by distillation of the fresh grated rinds. During the sixties of the 18. century Gaubius7) recommended the same process.

The mechanical method of preparation of the agrumen oils by rupturing the oil cells of the fruit rinds by means of a grate was described by CI. joh. Geoffroy8) in the beginning of the 18. century. In all probability, however, this method was practiced before this date.

The variety Citrus Bergamia, Risso, appears to be a cultural variety of much later date. The earliest information concerning oil of bergamot 'dates back as far only as the close of the 17. century. Thus e. g. it is mentioned in an inventory of an apothecary shop of Giessen of 1688,1) also in the treatise Le parfumeur Francois, par le Sieur Barbe, published in Lyon in 1693. In the latter the bergamot fruit is described as a pear, from the fruit rind of which the fragrant oil is obtained by trituration and expression. The further statement is made that the name bergamot is derived from the Turkish Beg-ar mu di, the "prince of pears". This statement would seem to indicate that the bergamot had its geographic source in the eastern coast lands of the Mediterranean. In his Hesperides Norimbergensis of 1713, the Nuernberg physician and botanist, I. G. Volkamer, described the Limon bergamotta as gloria limonum et fructus inter omnes noblissi-mus.2) He mentions that the Italians prepare an extremely fine essence from the fruit rind; that the name bergamot is in no way associated with Bergamo, a city in Lombardy; also that no agrumen varieties are cultivated in that region.

1) Alexandri Tralliani medici libri XII graece et latine tnulto quam antea auctiores et integriores etc. Basiliae 1556. Editio Puschmann. Vienna 1878.

2) See p. 24. - Gallesia, Trait6 du Citrus. Paris 1811. pp. 122, 247, 248.

3) Dispensatorium Noricum. Editio 1548, pp. 179, 273.

4) Euonymi Philiatri Ein kostlicher, teurer Schatz etc. Zurich 1555.

4) Besson, L'art et moyen parfait de tirer huyles et eaux de tous medicaments simples et o/eagineux. Paris 1571.

6) Portae Magiae naturalis libri viginti. Romae 1563. Edit. Napoli 1589. p. 188.

7) H.D.Gaub'riAdversariorumvariiargument/'liberunus. Leidae1771. p.31.

8) Memoires de i'Acade'mie des sciences de Paris. 1721, 159.

In some of the West Indian islands, agrumens have been cultivated since the beginning of the past century. Aside from the island Montserrat, they did not prosper, either because they did not receive proper care, or because the soil was not favorable. Proper care as well as soil they, however, found in the southern part of United States since about 1815. They are now being cultivated extensively in Florida, Louisiana, and, since the forties, in southern California.

In the municipal price ordinances concerning the wares of the apothecary and spices, oils of lemon and orange are enumerated among the distilled oils for the first time in that of Frankfurt-on-the-Main of 1582. Both oils had been introduced into the Dispensatorium Noricum of 1589 and into the Pharmacopoeia Augustana of 1613. As indicated above, bergamot oil appears to have come into use in 1690.

In 1786 Remmler3) tried to prepare rosin from oil of lemon. About the same time Liphard4) mentions that the yield of lemon oil is larger when the fruit is allowed to stand until decay sets in.

In 1789 the apothecary Heyer5) of Braunschweig, upon cooling bergamot oil, obtained crystals which he termed bergamot camphor.

1) Fluckiger, Dokumente zurGeschichte der Pharmazie. Halle 1876, p. 72.

2) Hesperides Norimbergenses, 1713. Liber III, cap. 26, p. 156, b.

3) Gottling's Taschenbuch fur Scheidekunstler 1786.

4) Crell's Chem. Annalen 1787, II. 250.

5) Ibidem 1789, I. 320.