For a number of years Spanish oil of turpentine has been a regular article of commerce. At the beginning of the present century the principal producers of turpentine in Spain united to form a corporation controlling 20 concerns with headquarters in Bilbao. The production of turpentine, which in 1898 - 99 had amounted to 1860000 kg., had risen to 3600000 kg. in 1905 - 6. Of the latter amount 67 p.c. were exported and 23 p.c. were consumed in Spain1). The exported oil is shipped in tank cars to Antwerp from which point it is distributed.

1) Mitteil. a. d. forstl. Versuchswesen in Osterreich 1881, 408; A. Tschirch and G. Schmidt, Arch, der Pharm. 241 (1903), 570.

2) A sample previously examined by Schimmel & Co. showed d15° 0,866 and aD + 3° 46'. Inasmuch as Ledermann and Godeffroy (Jahresb. f. d. Pharm. 1877, 394) likewise record laevorotation in accordance with the angles given above, this oil apparently was not Austrian oil.

Pinus Pinaster, Sol. is the principal species used in Spain for the production of turpentine. In harmony with this fact is the observation that the Spanish turpentine oil obtainable in Germany2) corresponds in its properties with those of the French oil, an observation which in itself would indicate the same source.

The oil of Pinus halepensis, Mill., the Spanish Aleppo pine has been examined by Fernandez8). Whereas other investigators had found the distillates of Pinus halepensis, Mill, to agree well in its properties with those of Spanish turpentine oil, Fernandez observed the unusual rotation of [a]D - 8,73°. Specific gravity d20o,859 and index of refraction (nD 1,4654), however, were normal. Hence the oil examined was not identical with Aleppo pine oil, neither with the common Spanish turpentine oils.