Origin and Production. The Austrian turpentine industry is located principally in Lower Austria, in the neighborhood of Wiener Neustadt. The area covered begins south of Voeslau, extends southward to Neunkirchen and northwestward to Hain-feld. The Pinus Laricio, Poir. (P. Laricio var. B austriaca, Endl.), Germ. Schwarzkiefer, Schwarzfoehre is used, it being tapped when it has reached an age of 50 years. The box system, the older American method, is employed.

Very near to the ground, a cavity is hewn into the trunk of the tree into which the oleoresin is caused to flow. Above this cavity (Schrot or Grande/), the bark and a part of the sap wood are removed from time to time by means of a curved axe (Texel), so that gradually a height of from 35 to 45 cm. is reached. Most of the turpentine thus produced flows into the cavity below. It is known as Rinnpech and is dipped out from time to time. That portion which remains on the trunk is removed at the end of the campaign and is known as Scharr-pech. In order to prevent the healing of the wound, which extends 2/3 around the tree, a small strip of bark is cut off twice each week during the season, viz. from the middle of March to the middle of September. In the course of 15 to 20 years 2/3 of the circumference of the tree are deprived of their bark to a height of from 5 to 6 m. During the subsequent 5 to 10 years one-half of the remaining third is treated in like manner. At the end of 25 to 30 years all but 1/3 of the stem is deprived of its bark to a height of 5 to 6 m. above the Schrot, when the tree is no longer useful for the production of oleoresin. In order to prevent too slow a flow of oleoresin and consequent evaporation, it is directed to the Schrot by means of a channel of chips that are nailed to the tree. 100 trees yield about 300 kg. turpentine each year.

1) See p. 26. Comp. Dubroca, Journ. de Chim. et Phys. 5 (1907), 468, also Polack, Etude des melanges doubles form6s par /'oxalate d'ethyle avec 1'essence de terebenthine. Bordeaux 1910, p. 4.

2) For the detailed data of a fractional distillation of a French turpentine oil, see p. 19.

The distillation is quite commonly carried out in the most primitive manner in small copper stills over direct fire. Their average capacity is 75 kg. of crude oleoresin (commonly 2 parts Rinnpech and 1 part Scharrpech). The average yield of turpentine oil is 16,5 p. c, of colophony 64 p. c, the remainder consisting of resinous residues (Pechgriefen), water and impurities.

According to Stoger1), the annual production of the area described above amounted to 5000 t. for 1880. The present output is estimated at 6000 t. The number of distilleries in this district are 16, one of which employs steam as well as direct heat.

Properties. Information concerning the properties of Austrian turpentine oil is very scant. Five samples examined by Schimmel & Co. revealed the following properties: d15 o,863 to 0,870; aD - 36°30' to - 39°10 2); nD2001,46905 to 1,47033; soluble in 6 parts by volume or more of 90 p.c. alcohol; in a Ladenburg fractionating flask 48 p.c. distilled over between 156 and 158°, 32 p.c. between 158 and 160°, 14 p.c. between 160 and 165°, 8 p.c. between 165 and 175° (748 mm.), residue 10 p.c.