Origin and Production4). In the governments Archangelsk and Wologda, forests of Pinus silvestris, L. cover an area of 1 000000 ha. For the production of oleoresin, the forests are divided into sections in order to insure their permanence. The rotation demands a period of from 60 to 80 years. Trees, the diameter of which does not exceed 25 cm. at the height of a man and not 35 cm. at the base, are selected. With the exception of a strip 5 cm. wide (Courro/e, Ger. Riemeri), the bark is removed from the tree to the height of 1 m. This strip permits the sap to pass upward and thus keeps the tree from dying. In subsequent years the bark is removed upward 1 m. each year until the fifth year. In the fifth year the "strip" is also removed whereupon the tree dries up and dies. On account of the cold climate, the turpentine does not flow down on the exposed surface of the trunc as it does in America, France and Austria. Hence it is not collected in special receptacles. The harvest is restricted to the scraping off of the galipot-like mass in fall. This is collected in bags held beneath the wound. The oleoresin thus collected contains up to 20 p. c. of chips. On the average a tree does not yield more than 50 g. galipot in a season. Compared with the production of other countries this is exceedingly small. At the beginning of the present century the annual output of galipot in the governments named above amounted to about 400 tons.

1) Utz, Apotheker Ztg. 19(1904), 678. - Tschirch and Schulz, Arch, der Pharm. 845 (1907), 156.

2) Report of Schimmel $ Co. October 1905, 67. Comp. also J. Parry, Perfum. and Essent. Oil Record 2 (1911), 210.

3) Wallach-Festschrift, Gottingen 1909. p. 429.

4) According to M. Vezes, L'Industrie resiniere en Russie. Bordeaux 1902. A report based on the publications issued at the time of the Exposition of 1900 by the Regency of the Imperial Russian Dependencies.

The distilleries for the production of the oil are erected in the forest. They are provided with one or two stills with a capacity of 2 to 3 tons containing a sieve bottom. The stills are heated over direct fire and the oil is distilled without the addition of water. Although the worst impurities are removed by means of the sieve bottom the colophony which is transferred to barrels while hot, is very impure. The pieces of wood and bark that collect on the sieve bottom (croutes) are used in the manufacture of pitch.

The oil thus obtained is known as Essence de terebenthine de resine, Ger. Harzterpentinol, to distinguish it from pine tar oil (Essence de terebenthine de four) obtained by the dry distillation of pine wood. It is brown in color and has an unpleasant odor that reminds but faintly of that of turpentine oil produced by steam distillation.

The distillation of galipot yields:

10 p.c. Resin turpentine oil

50 p.c. Colophony

40 p.c. Croutes and loss.

The production of turpentine oil in the two governments mentioned above amounts to 40000 kg. annually. The dead trees are chopped down and the wood rich in resin is utilized in the production of pine tar oil.

Properties. Outside of Russia no distinction is made in commerce between Russian pine tar oil and Russian turpentine oil, hence it is impossible to distinguish between the properties of the former and the latter. Even the presence of empy-reumatic substances cannot be used as a distinguishing means, since Russian turpentine, as already stated, is distilled over direct fire without the addition of water.

Composition. In Russian oil of turpentine distilled from oleoresin J. Schindelmeiser1) found B-pinene (m. p. of nopinic acid 126°), sylvestrene and dipentene. The presence of d-a-pinene may also be regarded as certain.

After repeated treatment with permanganate solution, Zelinski and Alexandroff 2) obtained from the first fraction of Russian turpentine oil a hydrocarbon with high optical rotation, [a]D - 70°45'. Although it.yielded no nitrosochloride, they regarded it as /-pinene. By exposing the first fraction of Siberian pine needle oil to a low temperature, Schindelmeiser3) isolated a strongly laevogyrate camphene, m.p. 40°, the molecular rotation of which was - 94°34' and the chlorhydrate of which melted at 150°. Schindelmeiser regards his camphene as identical with the not quite pure hydrocarbon of Zelinski and Alexandroff, hence /-camphene should, according to him, be regarded as a constituent of Russian turpentine oil.

Other Pinaceae than Pinus silvestris are occasionally used in the production of turpentine in Russia. Since their oil probably- is added to the common commercial article, the investigations of W. Schkatelow4) are of interest. He collected carefully the oleoresin of several conifers in different parts of Russia and distilled them. For the several oils he found the following properties.

1) Chem. Ztg. 32 (1908), 8. 2) Ibidem 2G (1902), 1224.

3) Chem. Ztg. Repert. 27 (1903), 73; Chem. Zentralbl. 1903, I. 835. 4) Moniteur scientifique IV. 22 (1908), I. 217; Chem. Zentralbl. 1908, I. 2097.

Oleoresin from

Yield of oil

[a]D

d

Pinus silvestris1) ....

from 15 to 16%

+22°+24°resp.

0,867 (15°)

Pinus Abies (Abies excelsa)

13,4°/o

- 13,2°

0,873 (15°)

Larix sibirica .................

14,137o

- 14,3°

0,870 (19°)

Pinus Cembra......

6°/o2)

+ 14,04°

0,865 (15°)

Pinus taurica (Pinus Laricio

Pallasiana) ... . . . ...........................

20%

- 75,9°

0,861 (19°)

Abies sibirica ....................................

28%

- 35.6°

0.8751 (19°)

In a Russian publication that made its appearance while this book was in the press, ). Maisit3) points out that Russian turpentine oil, known there as Schwefelterpentinol, contains the following constituents: traces of acetone, d-pinene, dipentene, /-limonene, i-sylvestrene (m. p. of dichlorhydrate 72 to 73°, optically inactive) and a-terpineol.