Quino-Quino balsam resembles Peru and tolu balsams. It has been described by C. Hartwich and A. jama5). The resin which had been obtained in Florida and Pampa grande (Bolivia) by Dr. Herzog, was derived from Myroxylon Balsamum var. y punctatum (Klotzsch)6), Baill., a tree that grows in Peru, southern Brazil and eastern Bolivia and which is known as quina-quina. The balsam is used as incense and as varnish. As to its chemical composition it resembles tolu and Peru balsams: A. V. 80,30; S. V. 134,09; vanillin content about 0,044 p.c. It differs from the other two balsams by its lower cinnamein content, which amounts to 5,83 p. c. (whereas Peru balsam contains 56 to 64 p.c. and tolu balsam 7,5 p.c). The cinnamein has the same qualitative composition but differs quantitatively, benzyl benzoate predominating almost exclusively with only traces of benzyl cinnamate.

1) Zeitschr. f. Chem. M. F. 5 (1869), 156; Chem. Zentralbl. 1869, 902.

2) Berl. Berichte 2 (1869), 512.

3) The formation of Peru balsam, Kronstein (Deutsche med. Wochenschr. 36 [1910], 2339; Apotheker Ztg. 25 [1910], 1023) attributes to the polymerization of allyl cinnamate. He has demonstrated that this ester, upon prolonged heating, is converted into a resin which is related both physically or chemically to Peru balsam. Hence it is possible that the secretory ducts contain allyl cinnamate in the monomolecular condition and which, upon polymerization, yields Peru balsam, whereas such substances, like free cinnamic acid and benzyl cinnamate, which cannot be polymerized, remain in their original condition.

4) Zeitschr. d. allg. osterr. Apoth. Ver. 17 (1879), 49; Jahresb. f. Pharm. 1879, 59.

5) Schweiz. Wochenschr. f. Chem. u. Pharm. 47 (1909), 625, 641.

6) Harms, Notizbl. bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 5 (1908), 97.

A balsam examined by ). D. Riedel1) differed somewhat in its properties. It is described as a thick, tenaceous extract with the odor of coumarin which, when exposed to the air, evaporates to a resin that can be pulverized. S. V. 184,8. 10,1 p.c. of a constituent resembling cinnamein were isolated. It was semi-solid and its S. V. was 99,9. The balsam did not contain cinnamic acid.

Hartwich and jama2) regard the difference in the consistence of the two balsams as accidental. The other difference they account for by assuming that whereas their own balsam was obtained by making incisions into the trunk, the balsam examined by Riedel was obtained from the fruit. They base their assumption on the analogy with Peru balsam. In this case the fruits likewise yield a product that has the odor of coumarin and is free from cinnamic acid. They are further of the opinion that the odor of a sample obtained by them from Riedel did not have the odor of coumarin but of piperonal. However, they do not attempt to decide whether this compound or vanillin is present.