The Edeltannennadelol is obtained by distillation of the needles and twigs of Abies alba, Mill. (Abies pectinata, DC, Abies excelsa, Lk., Ger. Edeltanne, WeiBtanne or Silbertanne) principally in Switzerland, the Tirol (in the Puster valley), Lower Austria and Steiermark, occasionally also in Thuringia and the Black Forest. The whole material yields 0,2 to 0,3 p. c. oil. From comminuted needles Schimmel & Co.1) obtained 0,56 p. c. of oil.
Properties2). This oil is a colorless liquid possessing a very pleasant, balsamic odor. The specific gravity varies according to its origin. With Tirolese and Swiss oils d15o lies between 0,867 and 0,875, whereas those of Lower and Upper Austria are frequently heavier, up to 0,886; aD - 34 to - 60°. In a few exceptional cases - 64° has been observed, these oils possibly containing cone oil. nD20o 1,473 to 1,474, and for oils with a high specific gravity up to 1,476. A. V. mostly absent or up to 2,0. Bornyl acetate 4,5 to 11 p. c. Soluble in 4 to 7 vol. and more of 90 p. c. alcohol, occasionally with slight turbidity. Upon distillation 8 p. c. pass over below 170°, and 55 p. c. between 170 and 185°. Above this temperature partial decomposition of the bornyl acetate sets in with the formation of acetic acid.
1) Report of Schimmel & Co., April 1906, 56.
2) Report of Schimmel & Co. October 1892, 34; April 1893, 56.
Composition. Bertram and Walbaum1) ascertained the presence of the following constituents: /-a-pinene (m. p. of pinene nitrolbenzylamine 122 to 123°), /-limonene (m. p. of tetrabromide 104°), /-bornyl acetate2) and a sesquiterpene not yet identified. Of the greatest importance, so far as the odor of the oil is concerned, is the presence of small amounts of lauric aldehyde determined by Schimmel & Co.3) (m. p. of semicarbazone 101,5 to 102,5°). In addition there appears to be present traces of decylic aldehyde3).
According to O. Aschan4), the lowest boiling fractions contain santene, C9H14 (blue coloration on addition of nitrosylchloride).