Origin. The German Fichtennadelol proper is distilled from the fresh needles and shoots of the Norway spruce, Picea excelsa, Lk. (Picea vulgaris, Lk., Ger. Fichte or Rottanne). So far as is known, however, it is nowhere produced for commercial purposes. The yield amounts to from 0,152) to 0,25 p. c.

Properties. The odor of this oil is just as agreeably aromatic as that of the oils distilled from the needles and cones of Abies alba. Sp. gr. 0,880 to 0,888; aD - 21°40' to - 37°.

1) Report of Schimmel & Co. October 1912, 94.

2) Bertram and Walbaum, Arch, der Pharm. 231 (1893), 295.

Upon fractional distillation of the oil Bertram and Walbaum1) obtained 20 p. c. between 160 and 170° and 50 p. c. between 170 and 185°. Above this temperature decomposition set in. Umney2) obtained 41 p.c. between 163 and 173°, 16 p.c. between 173 and 176°, 13 p.c. between 176 and 185°, 14 p.c. between 185 and 220°, and a residue of 16 p.c.

The bornyl acetate content amounts to 8,3 to 9,8 p. c.

Composition. Fraction 160 to 170° of this oil contains l-a-pinene (m. p. of nitrolbenzylamine 122 to 123°, of nitroso-pinene 132°). Fraction 170 to 175° consists of a mixture of /-phellandrene (m. p. of nitrite 101°) and dipentene (m. p. of dichlorhydrate 50°). In the higher boiling fractions /-bornylacetate and cadinene (m. p. of dichlorhydrate 118°) have been found3).

According to O. Aschan4) the lowest boiling fractions of the German and Swedish Fichtennadelol contain santene, C9H14 (blue coloration with nitrosylchloride).

From the buds of this spruce, H. Hasnsel5) obtained 0,288 p. c. of an oil, sp.gr. 0,9338 at 15°.