The oils from the needles, cones and twigs of several American conifers, which however cannot be identified satisfactorily because the botanical author's names are not recorded, have been distilled by R. E. Hanson and E. N. Babcock2).

Picea Mariana2), or black spruce, yielded 0,57 p.c. of needle oil: d19o0,9274.

Picea canadensis*), or cat spruce, yielded 0,103 p.c. of needle oil: d15o0,9216; 25,7 p.c. ester computed as bornyl acetate. From the odor of the oil the presence of limonene or dipentene may be inferred. The cones yielded 0,25 p.c. of a yellow oil that also had a limonene-like odor: d15o 0,899 (some time after the distillation).

1) Scientific American 84 (1901), 344; Pharm. Review 25 (1907), 364. 2) Journ. Americ. chem. Soc. 28 (1906), 1198.

3) Picea Mariana, Prel. = Picea nigra, Lk.

4) Picea canadensis, Lk. = Tsuga canadensis, Carr.

Picea rubens1) or red spruce yielded 0,204 p. c. of needle oil: d16o 0,9539; 66,2 p. c. of bornyl acetate: 7,76 p. c. of free borneol. The cones yielded 0,38 p. c. of oil with a turpentine-. like odor: d15o 0,860.

Pinus rigida (Mill.?) or pitch pine. 12 ko. of leaves and twigs yielded but 0,2 cc. of a yellowish, exceedingly pungent oil, insufficient for investigation.

Pinus resinosa (Sol.?), red pine or Norway pine. The yield was but 0,001 p. c. and the amount insufficient for a chemical investigation. The oil had a brownish-red color, its odor was pungent and unpleasant.

For an account of the larch needle oil investigated by the same chemists, see p. 134.

From the needles and twigs of several Colorado conifers ). Swenholt2) obtained the following oils by distillation with steam under pressure.

The oil of Picea Engelmanni, or Engelmann spruce, had a distinct odor of camphor. Its constants were: d 0,8950; aD+ 3°51' (1°55'38" in a 5 cm. tube); S. V. 24,15, corresponding to 8,5 p.c. of bornylacetate.

The oil of the lodge pole pine, Pinus Murrayana, had a pleasant odor that did not remind of turpentine oil. S. V. 51,87, corresponding to 18 p.c. of bornyl acetate.

The oil of Pinus edulis likewise had a pleasant odor that did not remind of turpentine. Constants: d 0,8653, aD - 7° 13' ( - 3°36'58" in a 5 cm. tube); S. V. 17,55, corresponding to 6 p.c. of bornyl acetate.

The aqueous distillate obtained upon cohobation presumably contains formic acid.

Oil of Pinus flexilis: d 0,8670; aD +8°l' (+4°0'28" in a 5 cm. tube); S. V. 43,14 corresponding to 15 p. c. bornyl acetate.

1) Picea rubens, Sarg. = P. rubra, Lk.

2) Midland Drugg. and Pharm. Review 43 (1909), 611.