From the wei-tsung vessel at the back of the heart are two vessels, like a tendon in size, which go to the two shoulders (the subclavian arteries); opposite the lumbar region there are also two vessels which enter the two kidneys (the renal arteries. Below the lumbar region are two vessels which go to the haunch (the iliac arteries.) Above the lumbar region immediately opposite the middle of the spine there are eleven short vessels* which connect with the back bone This is the road the air and lymph juices take. If the air be sufficient the fire increases and the juices become thick; the thick is called phlegm (fanA Modern Chinese Anatomist 706 If the air is weak the heat is diminished and it cannot boil the juices which therefore remain thin and watery and are called thin or imperfeet phlegm (yin Inside the vessel it is borne up by the air, passes upwards, crosses the heart in front of the lung vessel and in the middle of the air vessel and obtains egress by the right and left air door. The phlegm, juices, saliva, etc., are therefore matters belonging to the root air vessels, i.e., the carotids of our author. The ancients were therefore undoubtedly wrong in asserting that these things belonged to and issue from the lungs because they did not know that in front of the lung vessel there are air vessels which unite. They knew that the phlegm, etc., came from the chest, and so supposed they proceeded from the lungs, never having seen any true diagrams of the viscera nor having personally examined them. Whether we regard the function of the hand grasping things, the feet walking, the head turning, the body rotating, going forwards or backwards, all depend upon this air. When we inspire the air we fill the c'hi-fu (air residence), when the c'hi-fu is full the abdomen enlarges. In expiration on the other hand the c'hi-fu becomes empty, and the abdomen consequently becomes small, therefore the wei-tsung vessel (abdominal aorta) is an air vessel and contains no blood. If there were blood in the c'hi-fu it would find exit with the air in expiration and there would of necessity be haemoptysis and discoloured phlegm; and if the blood proceeded downwards we should have bloody stools and hæmaturia. The wei-tsung vessel connects in front with a tendon-like vessel. This is the jung-tsung vessel, the veins of our author, a blood vessel containing blood and in length like the wei-tsung vessel. The blood in this vessel nourishes the hsieh-fu (blood receptacle.) The blood in this vessel flows into the hsieh-fu, which is below the chest and forms one piece of the k'o-moh or diaphragm, in thickness like paper but very strong. Its front length is on a line with the concavity of the mouth of the heart (the hollow below the breast bone) and goes from the two sides of the ribs to the upper part of the lumbar region straight but inclined, in front high, behind low; the base is like a pond in the earth, inside it stores blood which is dissolved from the delicate juices. This is the blood residence. The juices will be discussed when we come to speak of the juice door of the stomach. I before spoke of the epiglottis as the white piece behind the tongue which covers the right and left air doors and the door of the larynx.

* These are without doubt the intercostal arteries, branches of the descending aorta. They are usually ten in number on each side. In the diagram they leave the vessel between the subclavian to the renal arteries. If the superior intercostal were not a branch of the subclavian, our author's number would be correct.

The organ that receives what is swallowed in birds is called suA Modern Chinese Anatomist 710 in quadrupeds tu in man wei The ancients pictured the stomach with the upper mouth above and called it pen menand the lower mouth as the yen wen They spoke therefore of two mouths or doors, an upper and a lower but they did not know that the stomach has three doors. They drew it vertically, whereas it is not only horizontal but it is placed in a flat position with one side up; the pen-men is directed to the back, the base towards the abdomen, the lower mouth yen-men is also at the upper part on the right side and is directed to the spine. About an inch to the left of the yen-men there is another door called the chin-menjuice above the chin door is the chin-kwan This is the road by which the delicate juice and watery juice comes out of stomach, but it is difficult to investigate this matter of the juice vessel because above it there is the tsung-ti

A Modern Chinese Anatomist 718 pancreas* which covers it. The tsung-ti is popularly called i-tse The body of the tsung-ti is on the right of the pen-men and left of the yen-men, and completely covers the chin-men. Below the tsung-ti and connected with the c'hi-fu in front are the small intestines; behind it the c'hi-fu connects with the large intestines; above the stomach it connects with the liver and the liver connects with the spine. These are all situated below the diaphragm and the tsung-ti connects with the body of the stomach, liver, small and large intestines. Food enters the stomach; the chyme flows first out of the chin-men and enters the chin-kwan and outside an inch or more this vessel divides into three divisions, the delicate chyle enters the marrow residence (sui-fu and forms marrow; the thicker sort goes by the upper branch and along with the blood enters the hsieh-fu and is converted into blood, the watery juice goes by the lower division and from the centre of the liver passes over to the spleen. In the centre of the spleen there is a vessel which resembles a ling-lung and is called lung-kwan a vessel resembling a gem with interspaces, the whole in the form of a dragon. The watery portion in this vessel divides into two sides and enters the outgoing water road, which road resembles a fish net, u-wang and is popularly called wang-yen The water percolates through the water road and enters the bladder and becomes urine. This part is indeed difficult to investigate. In the second year of Kia Ching 1798, when I investigated the viscera there were found bells full of water and some without water, and as I could not examine this point fully, so I cannot speak of it with certainty. Sometime afterwards I happened to be attending some patients with diseases of a very chronic character, who died; some of them drank much water, some little and some none at all, so that afterwards there was water still in the abdomen and although according to my earlier investigations of the outgoing water road I seemed to have reason on my side, yet I cannot definitely say it is so. Afterwards I compared it with animals and on killing them after they had drunk water, the bells of the wang-yen contained water, and if for three or four days they were not fed they had no water bells and so I came to the conclusion that water issued out of the water way. 1 have said above that food and water enter the stomach;