The Golden Mirror of Medicine describes briefly eight manual methods for the treatment of fractures of the bones, injury to the sinews, dislocations, etc. These are the moh Chinese Surgery 780 or feeling method, the chiehor uniting method, the twanor supporting method, the t'ior elevating method, the anmohor pressing and rubbing method, and the t'ui-naor the method of pushing and taking hold of (so as to place it in position.) These various hand methods may fail or require to be supplemented by apparatus. Ten different forms are given by which the broken may be joined, the slanting made straight, the elevated made even, the depressed raised, the dangerous made benign and peaceful, the severe made light, together with the administration of medicine and a nourishing diet.

1. The first is termed kwo-shaiChinese Surgery 786 by the use of bandages of white cloth; the length and breadth according to necessity.

2. The Chen-tingChinese Surgery 787 or use of splints; length 1 1/2 feet; in roundness the size of a cash or like the baker's roller (mien-chang.) The blood and air at the part of injury have collected, and the parts are in consequence painful, swollen and hard; if beaten, above and below, once on each side the air and blood will be dispersed and the symptoms will diminish. The principle of the method is this. The head is bandaged tightly, and the soles of the feet are clapped to disperse the blood in the heart and cause the air of the viscera to circulate and expel the superfluous blood from the heart, and thus the nausea ceases and the body becomes comfortable; but if notwithstanding this the patient remains unconscious, and the phlegm in the throat resembles the sound of sawing wood and the body becomes rigid and there is froth in the mouth, the case is hopeless.

3. The P'i-chienChinese Surgery 788 or shoulder cap is prepared of ox-hide; in length 5 inches, breadth 3 inches, with two holes at the two ends, to be tightly bound to the injured part with cotton string; the patient to recline. This leather cap is softer and more movable than the wooden splints. Having used the various manual manipulations necessary to restore the injured part to its original position afterwards take bandages and fasten the leather cap to the shoulder. Then take a board on which to rest the hands, over two feet long and three or four inches broad, with ropes passed through at the two ends; and suspend it and let the patient prostrate himself in it so that the shoulder may hang down. Continue this practice for seven days, and if the parts have recovered, the bandages may be removed; if not they must still be worn, and if not continued a permanent defect will be the result.

4. SuspensionChinese Surgery 789 from a rope from a high place; the rope to be grasped by the hands.

5. Three bricksChinese Surgery 790 are to be used for each foot, upon which the feet are to be placed. This is to cure injury of the thorax, abdomen, axillae and ribs from whatever cause the injury may have been inflicted. The chest has become depressed and must be elevated. The patient first takes hold of the ropes, standing on the bricks, and must fix the loins. Then one brick is removed from each side; the patient straightening his body and fixing the thorax. This is to be repeated three times, when the feet will have reached the ground and the air will have circulated and the superfluous air dissipated; the depressed will have become elevated, the bent will have become straight. Then use the bamboo screen with which he is to be enveloped and eight broad bandages with which he is to be bandaged, and everything is to be made proper and suitable. He then ought to recline on his back, and when sleeping ought not to lie either face downwards or on one side, and a pillow ought to be placed under the loins, and all movements to the right or left forbidden.

Fourth and Fifth Methods. Suspension and Pile of Bricks.

See page 60.

Sixth Method. Communicating Board.

6. The Communicating BoardChinese Surgery 791 Take a piece of wood, three inches in breadth, two in thickness and the length from the loins to an inch above the shoulder; it is even on the outside, but hollow on the inside towards the spine with which in its hollows and elevations it must agree. It is perforated by five series of apertures. The diagram will illustrate its mode of application better than any description. It is so bandaged that the wood is kept from moving, and so advantage to the injured part secured. Soft cotton wool is applied to the side in contact with the body to prevent pain. In the case of injury of the spine, the joints laid open, or the bones elevated, - and as a result spinal deformity - the patient is to lie on his face, and another person is to stand on his shoulders, and the surgeon must closely examine the deformity and decide on the use of the light or heavy plan, whether to use the twan or supporting plan, or the t'ui-na the pushing and laying hold of, or the an-moh or the kneading to make the fissures unite; and then afterwards use the piece of wood as above described.

Sixth Method. Communicating Board.

See page 61.

Sixth Method (continued). Communicating Board. Back View.

Sixth Method (continued). Communicating Board. Back View.

See page 61.

Communicating Board. Front View.

Communicating Board. Front View.

See page 61.

Seventh Method. Loin Pillars.

7. Loin PillarsChinese Surgery 792 Take four pieces of wood like flat runner poles (used for carrying things) one inch broad and half inch thick; the length according to the injured part; holes to be made through them on the sides at the two ends, and cords passed through uniting them all together. In cases of injury to the lumbar spine, whether of the bones, sinews, or flesh, such as dislocation and curvature, a medicinal powder mixed with vinegar is first applied, then the pillars are applied quite straight on the two sides of the spine; a mattress of artemisia is made to cover the pillars, in order to exclude wind and perspiration, and over all a broad bandage is wound round the body and drawn tightly, and the necessary medicine administered.

Seventh Method. Loin Pillars.

See page 61.

Loin Pillars. Back View.

Loin Pillars. Back View.

See page 61.

Eighth Method. The Bamboo Screen in use.

8. The Bamboo ScreenChinese Surgery 793 in size according to the injured part, no matter where. The manual method must first be employed, then the bandages, and last of all the screen, and thus correct what is uneven or movable.

Eighth Method. The Bamboo Screen in use.

See page 61.

Eighth Method. The Bamboo Screen.

Eighth Method. The Bamboo Screen.

See page 61.

Ninth Method. The Deal Paling.

9. The Deal PalingChinese Surgery 794 is an auxiliary application. The length, breadth, bent or straight, projecting or depressed condition, must first be examined, then this wooden apparatus prepared; the number of pieces required must be calculated, and the order of their application remembered; holes at the two ends of each require to be made, through which cords are passed, with which they are tied together like a fence, and hence the name. They must not be so closely placed as in the screen. The fence is to be placed outside the screen and tied tightly with cords, and outside this again other cords must be used, with which to give strength and fixity and to prevent the joints now brought together from getting displaced. The screen alone, it is feared, may not give the necessary and required strength and fixity, hence this fence is recommended, that the parts may unite strongly.

Ninth Method. The Deal Paling.

See page 61.

Tenth Method. The Knee Cap.

10. The Knee CapChinese Surgery 795 is made with the object of enveloping the patella. It consists of a bamboo circle with four feet. A piece of bamboo is taken and bent into a circular form and wound round with hempen thread, of which also the feet are made. White cloth bandages are employed and wound round the hoop and feet, and although inconvenient for the knee it gives no pain or trouble. The patella covers the ends of the two bones - femur and tibia; it is naturally very movable, and if injured it leaves its place, being displaced to one or other side; and although it can be replaced by the manual method, in walking, standing and the like, it is liable to return to its displaced position, hence the necessity for the enveloping plan to make it strong, and consequently prevent it from leaving its proper place, and thus prevent any limping defect which otherwise would be sure to arise. The apparatus as figured is placed on the knee, the loop keeps the cap in its place, and bandages are then employed to tighten and secure it firmly.

Tenth Method. The Knee Cap.

See page 62.

The Knee Cap in use.

The Knee Cap in use.

See page 62.

Chinese Surgery 806