Man's power of contrivance and memory lie not in the heart but in the brain. I have no wish to assert this doctrine and even if I do I know that nobody will believe me. If I do not, however, speak there are many diseases whose origin cannot be known, so I cannot but speak out. Not only do the medical books assert that memory and mind come from the heart but the learned, in treating of reason, virtue and conscience, all say that intelligence and memory are located in the heart, because at the beginning people did not know what the heart governed; they knew that it lay in the chest; they did not know that at the two sides of the larynx and gullet there are two air vessels, which at the front of the lungs unite to form one vessel which enters the heart; then goes out of the left side of the heart, passes the lungs and enters the spine. This is the wei-tsung vessel. In front it connects with the c'hi-fu and spermatic road; behind with the spine; above with the two shoulders; in the middle with the two kidneys, and below with the two lower extremities. This is the vessel that preserves the original or vital air and juices. This air goes out and in the heart; how then can the heart produce mind and store up memory? Why do I say that these mental qualities are in the brain, because food and water produce air and blood which grows the flesh; the pure delicate juice is converted into marrow which advances by the spine and so up to the brain and therefore is called nao-suiDiscourse on the Brain Marrow 730 (brain marrow). That which contains the brain marrow is called the sui-hai (the marrow sea); the top bone is called the t'ien-ling-kai(the cranium); the two ears communicate with the brain; the sounds we hear go to the brain. When the brain air is weak the brain is small; the brain and ear air fail to connect, so there is resulting deafness arising from weakness; if anything obstructs the road between the ear and brain then there is complete deafness. The two eyes grow out from the brain; the two optic cords, like threads, are produced from the brain, so that things seen go to the brain. The pupil (tung-jenis of a white colour, because the brain juice fills it below and is called the brain juice entering the eye.* The nose also communicates with the brain and so odours go to the brain. If the brain suffers by either wind or heat from the nose the mucus and foetid secretion flow out, and this is called brain fistula (nao-lou, When we look at a little child at birth whose brain is not completely formed, the anterior fontanelle (hising-menis weak; the eyes do not move actively; the ear does not hear; the nose does not smell; the tongue does not speak. After a year the brain begins to develop; the fontanelle fills up; the ear hears a little; the eyes move a little intelligently; the nose smells a little and knows the difference between what is fragrant and disagreeable'; the tongue can speak one or two words. Advancing up to three or four years of age the brain becomes full; the fontanelle becomes completely closed; the ears can hear; the eyes can move and see; the nose can distinguish smells; the tongue can speak, and that children have no memory is because their brains are not completely formed. Old people's memory fails because the brain becomes hollow, in other words the brain matter becomes less. Li Shih-chensays that the brain is the residence of the original spirit; Chin Cheng-hsisays that man's memory lies in his brain; Wang Jin-ansays that when one wishes to remember or recall a past action he shuts his eyes, throws up his head and thinks; all which proves, in my opinion, that memory is located in the brain. . If the brain is deprived for any period say two hours of air, there is not only no mind but there is death during that period; if one is half an hour without air one is dead for the same period; so there is epilepsy, which is caused by the original air not reaching the brain for that period; in convulsions the patient is alive, but the brain is dead; he is alive because the abdomen contains air and therefore the four extremities move. The brain is dead when it is deprived of air and therefore the ear is deaf, the eyes turn up like a dead person; there is a scream emitted before the convulsive attack, because there is no air in the brain and the chest air is confined and does not go out and in harmoniously, and being compressed there is the loud scream. During the convulsion there is a low groaning in the chest, because the saliva (chin-yeis in the air vessels; the mind of the brain cannot control the swal-

* This is doubtless the aqueous humour of the anterior chamber of the eye called white, much in the same way as they say pai-k'ai-shui Discourse on the Brain Marrow 740 meaning white or clear boiling water. The Chinese idea is similar to our own and that of the Hebrews - the pupil or little man of the eye. How comes the curious expression ' apple of the eye' which seems devoid of any meaning? What more appropriate than the pupil of the eye.

lowing or vomiting of the saliva and so it remains stored up in the air vessels and this causes this peculiar sound called lu-luDiscourse on the Brain Marrow 741 After the convulsion there is headache and drowsiness, which although the air now circulates in the brain, is insufficient; in the child that is long ill the original air is weak and thus they are subject to convulsions. Grown up people are sometimes suddenly deprived of their senses (as in apoplexy for example); this is because the brain has no air, so the affected person does not recognise anything and is like a dead person. According to these investigations, does it not prove that the intelligence of man is situated in the brain?